Amenhotep Hapu and Horemheb

Published April 8, 2020 by amaic

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Who was the enigmatic Amenhotep Hapu?

 

by

Damien F. Mackey

 

Part One:

Amenhotep Hapu, named Huy, as Amenhotep Huy

 

Here I am using the conventional dates as given by N. Grimal in his A History of Ancient Egypt (Blackwell, 1994).

To presume to identify Amenhotep son of Hapu, flourishing at the time of pharaoh Amenhotep ‘the Magnificent’  (1390-1352 BC), with general Amenhotep Huy, at the time of Tutankhamun (1336-1327 BC) – particularly considering that Hapu is thought to have been “born during the reign of pharaoh Thutmose III” (1479-1425 BC)

(https://www.encyclopedia.com/history/news-wires-white-papers-and-books/amenhotep-son-ha 

– would be to make of Huy a very aged general indeed.

Somewhere in the vicinity of 95 years of age.

My revision, though, according to which Thutmose III is to be merged with Thutmose IV (cutting out about 11 years), and Amenhotep II is to be merged with Amenhotep III (cutting out some 24 years), 35 in total, enables this connection to be biologically quite reasonable.

Why do I favour connecting Amenhotep Hapu (Huy) with Amenhotep Huy?

  1. Obviously there is the perfect name correspondence.
  2. The fact that Amenhotep Hapu is known to have lived to at least 80, and had hopes of attaining the age of 110 (immortalised by Joseph = Imhotep).
  3. The common role in Nubia.
  4. The quasi-pharaonic titles. 
  5. The fact that general Huy was considered important enough to have officiated at Tutankhamun’s funeral.  

As I had noted in my university thesis, this general Huy was acting “as a virtual pharaoh”: 

General Huy, as Doherty tells it, had returned victorious from Nubia as a virtual pharaoh (if he had not been that already before he had departed): 

….

Huy’s tomb also gives an insight into the power structure at Thebes. He is not bashful in viewing himself as Viceroy, or even more. One scene … depicts Huy’s return almost as a Pharaoh holding the flail as well as the crook. He may pay homage to Tutankhamun but Huy’s tomb pictures also illustrate Nubian tributes being presented directly to the Viceroy … nosing the ground … in front of [him]. … The inescapable conclusion … is that Huy saw himself very much in charge. He is active while the Pharaoh is passive. He does not receive the seal of office directly from the Pharaoh but from another powerful official which can only be Ay. Tutankhamun can be depicted as a warlike chieftain in the pictures on the fan found in his tomb. He may have had body armour buried with him but, as far as Huy was concerned, Huy was the victor of Nubia and, rather than Huy basking in Pharaoh’s glory, the positions are reversed.

Amenhotep son of Hapu likewise mentions being on a campaign to Nubia:

https://mathstat.slu.edu/~bart/egyptianhtml/kings%20and%20Queens/Amenhotep-Hapu.html

I was the chief at the head of the mighty men, to smite the Nubians [and the Asiatics (?)], the plans of my lord were a refuge behind me; [when I wandered (?)] his command surrounded me; his plans embraced all lands and all foreigners who were by his side. I reckoned up the captives of the victories of his majesty, being in charge of them.

Further on, Doherty will recall some of the elite titles that had been bestowed upon general Huy:

….

Huy, who was also present at Tutankhamun’s mysterious burial, rejoiced in some of the highest titles in the land. He was not only Viceroy of Nubia but ‘Divine Father’, one of the ‘Fanbearers on the King’s Right Hand’, ‘Supervisor of the Amun’s Cattle in the land of Kush’, ‘Supervisor of the Land of Gold of the Lord of the Two Countries’ … His Majesty’s Brave in the Cavalry.

Compare Amenhotep Hapu’s similarly grand titles:

https://mathstat.slu.edu/~bart/egyptianhtml/kings%20and%20Queens/Amenhotep-Hapu.html

Hereditary prince, count, sole companion, fan-bearer on the king’s right hand, chief of the king’s works even all the great monuments which are brought, of every excellent costly stone; steward of the King’s-daughter of the king’s-wife, Sitamen, who liveth; overseer of the cattle of Amon in the South and North, chief of the prophets of Horus, lord of Athribis, festival leader of Amon.

Part Two:

Amenhotep Hapu as Horemheb

 

The conclusion was reached in Part One, that that extraordinary character in Eighteenth Dynasty Egyptian history, Amenhotep Hapu, or Huy, was the same as the quasi-royal general serving king Tutankhamun, Amenhotep Huy.

Now, Amenhotep Huy I had previously identified with Horemheb, a future pharaoh of Egypt. There I wrote: 

It is here suggested that the powerful Horemheb may actually have been present at the lavish funeral of pharaoh Tutankhamun in the guise of General Huy.

A possible identification of Horemheb with Huy was one of my many attempts at revising ancient history through the use of alter egos in my university thesis:

A Revised History of the Era of King Hezekiah of Judah

and its Background

AMAIC_Final_Thesis_2009.pdf

Beginning on p. 242 of Volume One, Chapter Ten, I presented the following section:

Horemheb as General Huy

With regard to the highly successful Nubian campaign effected during the reign of Tutankhamun, Horemheb is thought to have played a rôle only secondary to Huy. And Horemheb was entirely absent from Tutankhamun’s burial, according to Doherty … who has told of Ay’s sinister part in the entire funerary rites. …. Horemheb’s presumed absence though may be a misconception, based on what might be a one-dimensional view of this multi-dimensional official. He was I believe to the fore in both the Nubian campaign and the funeral; but not under the actual name of ‘Horemheb’. It is here I submit that … Horemheb is perhaps also the multi-titled Huy, “one of Ay’s close lieutenants” … who was at the forefront of both the Nubian campaign and Tutankhamun’s funeral.

Doherty has described the Nubian campaign, with Tutankhamun as merely a passive onlooker by contrast with the real power in Egypt at the time: ….

If Tutankhamun was not the real leader in the projected campaign against Kush then who was? General Horemheb must have played a part: paintings from his tomb at Sakkara portray the general bringing Nubian captives before Pharaoh and receiving [his] approval and approbation …. Horemheb was involved in the Nubian campaign and displayed his exploits both in his tomb at Sakkara and on the stela describing the events which led to his own coronation as Pharaoh.

Nevertheless, his nose may have been put out of joint, for the real star [sic] of Tutankhamun’s Nubian campaign was … the court official … Huy … Viceroy of Nubia and Huy unashamedly described his achievements in his own tomb paintings … These paintings place Huy very much at the heart of affairs. …

But this Huy was, I suspect, Horemheb himself. And this makes it almost certain that he was therefore the same also as Amenhotep Huy, king’s son of Kush. …. Whilst Doherty can only conclude about the Nubian campaign: …. “Very little if any mention is made of General Horemheb’s role”, the situation of course takes on a completely different aspect when Horemheb is equated with Huy. 

….

Doherty will discuss what he calls “three versions of the Nubian campaign”: i.e. one in the tomb of Tutankhamun, one in the tomb of Huy, and one in the tomb of Horemheb. …. But his complete separation of these last two, which I consider to belong to the one general, will necessitate from him this somewhat convoluted explanation: ….

On one level these different versions can be amusing but they do betray the tensions [sic] at Tutankhamun’s court. Huy, in his paintings, claims the credit, whilst General Horemheb presents an alternate [sic] version. There is no evidence of two Nubian campaigns. Horemheb may have gone ahead to prepare the ground for Huy or may have acted in concert with him. Nevertheless, the inescapable conclusion is that both [sic] men claimed the glory for … a victorious campaign.

Horemheb as Huy certainly also attended Tutankhamun’s funeral. Doherty again:

….

Huy, who was also present at Tutankhamun’s mysterious burial, rejoiced in some of the highest titles in the land. He was not only Viceroy of Nubia but ‘Divine Father’, one of the ‘Fanbearers on the King’s Right Hand’, ‘Supervisor of the Amun’s Cattle in the land of Kush’, ‘Supervisor of the Land of Gold of the Lord of the Two Countries’ … His Majesty’s Brave in the Cavalry.

…. Horemheb had … astonishing titles as well [e.g. ‘King’s Deputy in All Countries’, ‘King’s Elect’, ‘The Greatest Amongst the Favourites of the Lord of the Two Countries’, ‘The True Scribe Well Beloved of the King’]. …. Courville marvelled at the nature of Horemheb’s titles and privileges. …. That Horemheb was already at least quasi-pharaoh during the reign of Tutankhamun is quite apparent from the fact that Horemheb’s cartouche has been found together with that of Tutankhamun on commemorative stone slabs found at the base of sphinxes as part of the Avenue of Sphinxes at Karnak. ….

Horemheb, if identical to Amenhotep Huy, may have taken the name, “Amenhotep”, in honour of his great benefactor, Amenhotep ‘the Magnificent’.

I had calculated Amenhotep Huy’s age to have been about 60 during the reign of Tutankhamun. That number will still require the addition of 4 years for Aye, plus the amount of time that Horemheb reigned.

I would favour a short reign, despite Horemheb’s vast building works. Much of these could have been completed during the reign of Amenhotep ‘the Magnificent’.

For Amenhotep Hapu was:

https://peoplepill.com/people/amenhotep-son-of-hapu/

“… a priest and a Scribe of Recruits (organizing the labour and supplying the manpower for the Pharaoh’s projects, both civilian and military). He was also an architect and supervised several building projects, among them Amenhotep III’s mortuary temple at western Thebes, of which only two statues remain nowadays, known as the Colossi of Memnon. He may also have been the architect of the Temple of Soleb in Nubia. …”. 

Likewise, Horemheb was a Scribe of Recruits and the Overseer of the Priests of Horus: http://ib205.tripod.com/horemheb.html

More recently I have written:

“The large grey granite statue of Horemheb in the pose of a scribe … is related stylistically to those of Amenhotep son of Hapu … Horemheb has the same plump, well-fed body and wears a long wig similar to that of the aged wise man …”.

Smith and W. Simpson

Amenhotep son of Hapu, Horemheb, contemporaneous, having lived during the reign of Amenhotep III. And in Part One, it was observed:

Horemheb, for one, may have been stylistically influenced by Amenhotep. For according to W. Smith and W. Simpson (The Art and Architecture of Ancient Egypt, Yale UP, 1998, p. 195): “The large grey granite statue of Horemheb in the pose of a scribe … is related stylistically to those of Amenhotep son of Hapu … Horemheb has the same plump, well-fed body and wears a long wig similar to that of the aged wise man …”.

Using information on “Amenhotep son of Hapu” as provided by Anneke Bart:

https://mathstat.slu.edu/~bart/egyptianhtml/kings%20and%20Queens/Amenhotep-Hapu.html

I shall point out some comparisons between him and Horemheb (for whom I shall be drawing largely from Arianna Sacco’s article “Soldier, scribe, king: the career of Horemheb”).

Some of his titles:

Hereditary prince, count, sole companion, fan-bearer on the king’s right hand, chief of the king’s works even all the great monuments which are brought, of every excellent costly stone; steward of the King’s-daughter of the king’s-wife, Sitamen, who liveth; overseer of the cattle of Amon in the South and North, chief of the prophets of Horus, lord of Athribis, festival leader of Amon

Horemheb’s titles (“In this tomb, Horemheb is given 90 titles, most of which are military”):

https://www.karwansaraypublishers.com/awblog/soldier-scribe-king-the-career-of-horemheb/

But Horemheb progressed also in his administrative career, becoming scribe and chief registrar of recruits, as well as royal messenger to foreign lands. He was awarded the title, “Royal messenger at the front of his army to the southern and northern lands”. Other titles included: “Crown Prince, Fan-bearer on the Right Side of the King, and Chief Commander of the Army”, “Attendant of the King in his footsteps in the foreign countries of the south and the north”, “Sole Companion, he who is by the feet of his lord on the battlefield on that day of killing Asiatics”.

Family background and career:

Amenhotep called Huy, son of Hapu was a very influential noble from the time of Amenhotep III. Amenhotep was the son of Hapu (Hapi) and the Lady Itu. 

Horemheb’s origins unknown:

Early military career

The original name of Horemheb may have been Paatenemheb. His family came from Herakleopolis Magna. However, nothing is known for sure about the origins of the king.

https://www.osirisnet.net/tombes/saqqara_nouvel_empire/horemheb_saqqara/e_horemheb_saqqara_01.htm

Horemheb doesn’t speak of his parentage, which suggests that he was probably of modest origin and that he was a self-made man. One knows that his family was from Herakleopolis, close to the entry of the Fayum, whose tutelary god was Herishef, a god with the head of a ram. Nevertheless no monument of this city makes allusion to Horemheb, and it seems that he had no particular devotion for its god, no more that he erected a place of cult worship there for his family (at least nothing has been found).

Several inscriptions outline his career and show how he rose through the ranks.

Horemheb rose through the ranks:

Horemheb’s career started in the army during the reign of Akhenaten.

He may have led an attack against the Nubians, who lived in the extreme south. He managed to secure a number of military successes in Nubia. Evidence for these military victories are reflected in his titles and the representations in his tomb at Saqqara, described further down in this article.

Horemheb ascendant

During the reign of Tutankhamun (r. 1336–1327 BC), Horemheb progressed in his military career and became the commander of all the army.

Amenhotep started off as a king’s scribe as mentioned on his statue:

I was appointed to be inferior king’s-scribe; I was introduced into the divine book, I beheld the excellent things of Thoth; I was equipped with their secrets; I opened all their [passages (?)]; one took counsel with me on all their matters.

 After distinguishing himself, Amenhotep was promoted to the position of Scribe of Recruits.

… he put all the people subject to me, and the listing of their number under my control, as superior king’s-scribe over recruits. I levied the (military) classes of my lord, my pen reckoned the numbers of millions; I put them in [classes (?)] in the place of their [elders (?)]; the staff of old age as his beloved son. I taxed the houses with the numbers belonging thereto, I divided the troops (of workmen) and their houses, I filled out the subjects with the best of the captivity, which his majesty had captured on the battlefield. I appointed all their troops (Tz.t), I levied ——-. I placed troops at the heads of the way(s) to turn back the foreigners in their places.

Ample evidence above of Horemheb as king’s scribe.

Amenhotep mentions being on a campaign to Nubia.

I was the chief at the head of the mighty men, to smite the Nubians [and the Asiatics (?)], the plans of my lord were a refuge behind me; [when I wandered (?)] his command surrounded me; his plans embraced all lands and all foreigners who were by his side. I reckoned up the captives of the victories of his majesty, being in charge of them.

Horemheb campaigned in Nubia and against Asiatics:

Horemheb’s career started in the army during the reign of Akhenaten. He may have led an attack against the Nubians, who lived in the extreme south. He managed to secure a number of military successes in Nubia. Evidence for these military victories are reflected in his titles and the representations in his tomb at Saqqara, described further down in this article.

Horemheb ascendant

During the reign of Tutankhamun (r. 1336–1327 BC), Horemheb progressed in his military career and became the commander of all the army. He was responsible for campaigns into Nubia and Asia. Mostly, the Egyptian efforts were focused on Syria, where the Hittites had wrested control from the Egyptians over Amurru and Karkemish.

The goal of the Egyptian campaigns in the region was to re-establish Egyptian rule over Palestine and Lebanon. These campaigns turned into further successes for Horemheb and, as with the Nubian expeditions, the victories secured here were quickly reflected in the honorary titles bestowed on him. 

Later he was promoted to “Chief of all works”, thereby overseeing the building program of Pharaoh Amenhotep III

Horemheb was “uppermost of all works of the king and Regent to the young king”:

https://www.osirisnet.net/tombes/saqqara_nouvel_empire/horemheb_saqqara/e_horemheb_saqqara_01.htm

His connections to court finally led to Amenhotep being appointed as Steward to Princess-Queen Sitamen.

Horemheb was “Steward of the Lord of the Two Lands”. 

Mortuary temple edict

An inscription on a limestone stela records how Amenhotep son of Hapu was allowed to build a mortuary temple right next to the temple of Amenhotep III. This type of honor is exceedingly rare.

Year 31, fourth month of the first season, sixth day, under the majesty of the King of Upper and Lower Egypt, the Lord of the Two Lands, Nibmare, L.P.H.; Son of Re, of his body, Lord of Diadems, Amenhotep (III), L.P.H.

On this day, one (=the king) was in the ka-chapel of the hereditary prince, count, king’s-scribe, Amenhotep. There were brought in: the governor of the city, and vizier, Amenhotep, the overseer of the treasury, Meriptah, and the king’s-scribes of the army.

One said to them in the presence of his majesty, L.P.H.: “Hear the command which is given, to furnish the ka-chapel of the hereditary prince, the royal scribe, Amenhotep, called Huy, Son of Hapu, whose excellence is [extolled (?)] in order to perpetuate his ka-chapel with slaves, male and female, forever; son to son, heir to heir; in order that none trespass upon it forever.

“[Horemheb] also usurped the mortuary temple of Ay at Medinet Habu for his own, rebuilding it on a much larger scale”:

http://www.touregypt.net/featurestories/horemheb.htm

At Luxor, he continued the work of Amenhotep III and Tutankhamun, usurping the latter’s monuments both there and elsewhere. Perhaps much of the work completed during the reign of Tutankhamun was actually commissioned by Horemheb for today, many of the statues and reliefs bearing Horemheb’s cartouches was actually work completed during Tutankhamun’s reign.

Amenhotep son of Hapu would go down in history as a god. He was worshipped for centuries and there are inscriptions showing Amenhotep was venerated as a healer.

“Once Ramses II was on the throne, Horemheb was deified” (Charlotte Booth, “Horemheb: The Forgotten Pharaoh”, 2012).

 

Part Three:

An early Horemheb

 

The conclusion was reached in Part One, that that extraordinary character in Eighteenth Dynasty Egyptian history, Amenhotep Hapu, or Huy, was the same as the quasi-royal general serving king Tutankhamun, Amenhotep Huy.

And, in Part Two, the long-living Amenhotep Hapu was further extended to embrace Horemheb.

Now, here, in Part Three, I shall consider whether our composite character might also be the Horemheb the Scribe of Recruits, during the reign of pharaoh Thutmose (so-called IV).

We read about the quality of the tomb decoration of the early Horemheb:

https://www.osirisnet.net/tombes/nobles/horemheb78/e_horemheb78_01.htm

The owner of the TT78 Theban tomb is called Horemheb Horemheb (Hrw-m-h3b, Hr-m-hb, Heremheb, Horemhab, Haremhab, “Horus is celebrating”), as was the well-known pharaoh, but the two characters are not contemporaries: our Horemheb lived about 80 years before the sovereign. Through its texts and images, this tomb makes an important contribution to knowledge of the Egyptian culture of the middle of the XVIIIth dynasty.

Although he has not reached the highest levels of power, Horemheb held important titles in the civil, military and religious spheres and enjoyed royal favour. Witness to this are the dimensions of his tomb, the variety of his titles, and the variety of decoration in the tomb, whose style and execution make this monument one of the jewels of the eighteenth dynasty and a summit of Egyptian funerary art. A notable historical fact is that in the chapel of Horemheb, and that of Menna TT69), there are the oldest known tomb representations of scenes of the judgment of the dead.

Our composite Amenhotep Huy-Horemheb I had estimated to have been about 60 years of age during the reign of Tutankhamun. 

To that we would need to add 4 years for the reign of Ay (Aye), plus the 14-27 years of Horemheb as  pharaoh.

Naturally favouring the shorter reign length, we arrive at the age of about 80. And this was indeed the age that we know Amenhotep Hapu reached, with a further hope of his attaining 110.

{One always has to consider a further reduction in time due to co-regencies}.

At least most of those extra (110-80 =) 30 years would be required to be added on if we were to include the early Horemheb’s service as a young scribe under Thutmose. 

{I have previously merged as one Thutmose III and IV}.  

In conventional history, Amenhotep Hapu is estimated to have been born during the reign of Thutmose III, whilst Horemheb looked back to Thutmose III with great filial respect.

The early Horemheb held many impressive titles reminiscent of Amenhotep Hapu (Amenhotep Huy) and Horemheb, such as:

“fan bearer on the right of the king”, “true scribe of th(e king, who loves him”

 

Thus: https://www.osirisnet.net/tombes/nobles/horemheb78/e_horemheb78_01.htm

Court titles 

Horemheb was rewarded with twenty-two honorific titles, which give information on the rank of the holder and the esteem in which the sovereign held him. These honorary titles are always placed at the beginning of the person’s titulary: “Prince and Count”, “Familiar of the King”, “Great Confidant of the Lord of the Two Lands”, “Favorite Confident”, “Beloved of the Perfect God”, “Nearest of Horus”, “close to the Lord of the palace”, “fan bearer on the right of the king”, “true scribe of the king, who loves him”, “companion of the Lord of the two lands”, “companion of the bearer of the force”, “the eyes of the king through the land”, “one of those who bring good into the royal house and who comes out of it loved”, “beloved”, “from a beloved.”

Titles related to an office 

Horemheb held twenty-one different office titles, with five variants in writing. It can be seen that the range of all these titles covers three spheres, military, civil and religious.

  • The military titles of Horemheb are in the transverse room and date from the reign of Thutmose IV. We see that he reached the highest levels of the army: he began as “Royal Scribe”, then became “true royal scribe” and finished up as “Overseer of all the scribes of the army”.

He will reach the top, becoming “One responsible for recruiting and organizing troops”: all soldiers and active officers are then subordinate to him. This explains why, in the banquet scene, there are no less than five army commanders among the guests.

  • His office functions included the military and civil sphere, and it is he who receives the tributes of foreign countries, and who controls the populations. He is also “Overseer of Cattle”, “Overseer of Birds and Fish”, which gave him control over hunts and royal estates.
  • His offices in the temples of Karnak and in the domains of Amun (drawing Brack-049) are of the greatest importance :“Overseer of the fields of Amun”, “Overseer of the cattle of Amun”, “One in charge of the constructions of Amun”, “Chief of the Priests of Upper and Lower Egypt”. Their representation is confined to the long room; the latter having been decorated under Amenhotep III, these titles were therefore effective under the reign of that king.

 

 

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