AMAIC Australian Marian Academy of the Immaculate Conception biblical identifications Damien F. Mackey Revised History Era King Hezekiah Judah post-graduate Tiglath-pileser John R. Salverda

All posts tagged AMAIC Australian Marian Academy of the Immaculate Conception biblical identifications Damien F. Mackey Revised History Era King Hezekiah Judah post-graduate Tiglath-pileser John R. Salverda

So-called “Minoans” were the Philistines

Published October 17, 2019 by amaic

Philistines Flee

by

Damien F. Mackey

 

 

Those whom Sir Arthur Evans fancifully named ‘the Minoans’,

based on the popular legend of King Minos, son of Zeus,

are biblically and historically attested as the Philistines.

Gavin Menzies has followed Arthur Evans in labelling as “Minoans” the great sea-faring and trading nation that is the very focal point of his fascinating book, The Lost Empire of Atlantis: History’s Greatest Mystery Revealed (HarperCollins, 2011). Though the ex-submariner, Menzies, can sometimes ‘go a bit overboard’ – or, should I say, he can become a bit ‘airborne’ (and don’t we all?) – he is often highly informative and is always eminently readable.

According to the brief summary of the book that we find at Menzies’ own site: http://www.gavinmenzies.net/lost-empire-atlantis/the-book/

 

 

… the Minoans. It’s long been known that this extraordinary civilisation, with its great palaces and sea ports based in Crete and nearby Thera (now called Santorini), had a level of sophistication that belied its place in the Bronze Age world but never before has the extent of its reach been uncovered.

 

Through painstaking research, including recent DNA evidence, Menzies has pieced together an incredible picture of a cultured people who traded with India and Mesopotamia, Africa and Western Europe, including Britain and Ireland, and even sailed to North America.

 

Menzies reveals that copper found at Minoan sites can only have come from Lake Superior, and that it was copper, combined with tin from Cornwall and elsewhere, to make bronze, that gave the Minoans their wealth. He uses knowledge gleaned as a naval captain to explore ancient shipbuilding and navigation techniques and explain how the Minoans were able to travel so far. He looks at why the Minoan empire, which was 1500 years ahead of China and Greece in terms of science, architecture, art and language, disappeared so abruptly and what led to her destruction. …

 

[End of quote]

 

The Philistines

 

Thanks to Dr. Donovan Courville (The Exodus Problem and its Ramifications, Loma Linda CA, 1971), we can trace the Philistines – through their distinctive pottery – all the way back to Neolithic Knossos (Crete). And this, despite J. C. Greenfield’s assertion: “There is no evidence for a Philistine occupation of Crete, nor do the facts about the Philistines, known from archaeological and literary sources, betray any relationship between them and Crete” (IDB, 1962, vol. 1, p. 534). The distinctive type of pottery that Courville has identified as belonging to the biblical Philistines is well described in this quote that he has taken from Kathleen Kenyon:

 

The pottery does in fact provide very useful evidence about culture. The first interesting point is the wealth of a particular class of painted pottery …. The decoration is bichrome, nearly always red and black, and the most typical vessels have a combination of metopes enclosing a bird or a fish with geometric decoration such as a “Union Jack” pattern or a Catherine wheel. At Megiddo the first bichrome pottery is attributed to Stratum X, but all the published material comes from tombs intrusive into this level. It is in fact characteristic of Stratum IX. Similar pottery is found in great profusion in southern Palestine … Very similar vessels are also found on the east coast of Cyprus and on the coastal Syrian sites as far north as Ras Shamra. [Emphasis Courville’s]

 

By contrast, the pottery of the ‘Sea Peoples’ – a maritime confederation confusingly identified sometimes as the early biblical Philistines, their pottery like, but not identical to the distinctive Philistine pottery as described above – was Aegean (Late Helladic), not Cretan.

 

The indispensable “Table of Nations” (Genesis 10), informs us that the Philistines were a Hamitic people, descendants of Ham’s “son”, Mizraim (or Egypt) (v. 6).

Genesis 10:13: “Mizraim was the father of the Ludites, Anamites, Lehabites, Naphtuhites,Pathrusites, Kasluhites (from whom the Philistines came) and Caphtorites”.

These earliest Philistines would be represented by the users of this distinctive pottery at Neolithic I level Knossos (Dr. Courville):

 

With the evidences thus far noted before us, we are now in a position to examine the archaeological reports from Crete for evidences of the early occupation of this site by the Caphtorim (who are either identical to the Philistines of later Scripture or are closely related to them culturally). We now have at least an approximate idea of the nature of the culture for which we are looking ….

 

… we can hardly be wrong in recognizing the earliest occupants of Crete as the people who represented the beginnings of the people later known in Scripture as the Philistines, by virtue of the stated origin of the Philistines in Crete. This concept holds regardless of the name that may be applied to this early era by scholars.

The only site at which Cretan archaeology has been examined for its earliest occupants is at the site of the palace at Knossos. At this site deep test pits were dug into the earlier occupation levels. If there is any archaeological evidence available from Crete for its earliest period, it should then be found from the archaeology of these test pits. The pottery found there is described by Dr. Furness, who is cited by Hutchinson.

 

“Dr. Furness divides the early Neolithic I fabrics into (a) coarse unburnished ware and (b) fine burnished ware, only differing from the former in that the pot walls are thinner, the clay better mixed, and the burnish more carefully executed. The surface colour is usually black, but examples also occur of red, buff or yellow, sometimes brilliant red or orange, and sometimes highly variegated sherds”.

 

A relation was observed between the decoration of some of this pottery from early Neolithic I in Crete with that at the site of Alalakh ….

 

Continuing to cite Dr. Furness, Hutchinson commented:

 

Dr. Furness justly observes that “as the pottery of the late Neolithic phases seems to have developed at Knossos without a break, it is to the earliest that one must look for evidence of origin of foreign connections”, and she therefore stresses the importance of a small group with plastic decoration that seems mainly confined to the Early Neolithic I levels, consisting of rows of pellets immediately under the rim (paralleled on burnished pottery of Chalcolithic [predynastic] date from Gullucek in the Alaca [Alalakh] district of Asia Minor). [Emphasis Courville’s]

 

While the Archaeological Ages of early Crete cannot with certainty be correlated with the corresponding eras on the mainland, it would seem that Chalcolithic on the mainland is later than Early Neolithic in Crete; hence any influence of one culture on the other is more probably an influence of early Cretan culture on that of the mainland. This is in agreement with Scripture to the effect that the Philistines migrated from Crete to what is now the mainland at some point prior to the time of Abraham.[[1]]

[End of quotes]

 

Late Chalcolithic, we have already learned, pertains to the era of Abram (Abraham), when the Philistines were apparently in southern Canaan:

 

Better archaeological model for Abraham

 

https://www.academia.edu/31214563/Better_archaeological_model_for_Abraham

We next find the Philistines in the land of Palestine (the Gaza region) at the time of Joshua. Was there a Philistine migration out of Crete (“Caphtor”) at the time of the Exodus migration out of Egypt? (Amos 9:7): “Did I not bring Israel up from Egypt, the Philistines from Caphtor and the Arameans from Kir?”

Dr. John Bimson becomes interesting at this point, as previously I have written:

 

Here I take up Bimson’s account of this biblical tradition:[2]

 

There is a tradition preserved in Joshua 13:2-3 and Judges 3:3 that the Philistines were established in Canaan by the end of the Conquest, and that the Israelites had been unable to oust them from the coastal plain …. There is also an indication that the main Philistine influx had not occurred very much prior to the Conquest. As we shall see below, the Philistines are the people referred to as “the Caphtorim, who came from Caphtor” in Deuteronomy 2:23 … where it is said that a people called the Avvim originally occupied the region around Gaza, and that the Caphtorim “destroyed them and settled in their stead”. Josh. 13:2-3 mentions Philistines and Avvim together as peoples whom the Israelites had failed to dislodge from southern Canaan. This suggests that the Philistines had not completely replaced the Avvim by the end of Joshua’s life. I would suggest, in fact, that the war referred to in Ex. 13:17, which was apparently taking place in “the land of the Philistines” at the time of the Exodus, was the war of the Avvim against the newly arrived Philistines.

 

As conventionally viewed, the end of MB II C coincides with the expulsion of the Hyksos from Egypt. Bimson however, in his efforts to provide a revised stratigraphy for the revision of history, has synchronised MB II C instead with the start of Hyksos rule. He will argue here in some detail that the building and refortifying of cities at this time was the work of the Avvim against the invading Philistines, with some of the new settlements, however, likely having been built by the Philistines themselves.

 

[End of quote]

 

I have further written on Dr. Bimson’s laudable effort to bring some archaeological sanity to this era:

 

Bimson has grappled with trying to distinguish between what might have been archaeological evidence for the Philistines and evidence for the Hyksos, though in actual fact it may be fruitless to try to discern a clear distinction in this case. Thus he writes:[3]

 

Finds at Tell el-Ajjul, in the Philistine plain, about 5 miles SW of Gaza, present a particularly interesting situation. As I have shown elsewhere, the “Palace I” city (City III) at Tell el-Ajjul was destroyed at the end of the MBA, the following phase of occupation (City II) belonging to LB I …. There is some uncertainty as to exactly when bichrome ware first appeared at Tell el-Ajjul.

Fragments have been found in the courtyard area of Palace I, but some writers suggest that this area remained in use into the period of Palace II, and that the bichrome ware should therefore be regarded as intrusive in the Palace I level ….

It seems feasible to suggest that the invading Philistines were responsible for the destruction of City III, though it is also possible that its destruction was the work of Amalekites occupying the Negeb (where we find them settled a short while after the Exodus; cf. Num. 13:29); in view of Velikovsky’s identification of the biblical Amalekites with the Hyksos … the Amalekite occupation of the Negeb could plausibly be dated, like the Hyksos invasion of Egypt, to roughly the time of the Exodus …. But if our arguments have been correct thus far, the evidence of the bichrome ware favours the Philistines as the newcomers to the site, and as the builders of City II.

[End of quotes]

 

Next we come to the Philistines in the era of King Saul, for a proper appreciation of which I return to Dr. Courville’s thesis. He, initially contrasting the Aegean ware with that of the distinctive Philistine type, has written:

 

The new pottery found at Askelon [Ashkelon] at the opening of Iron I, and correlated with the invasion of the Sea Peoples, was identified as of Aegean origin. A similar, but not identical, pottery has been found in the territory north of Palestine belonging to the much earlier era of late Middle Bronze. By popular views, this is prior to the Israelite occupation of Palestine. By the altered chronology, this is the period of the late judges and the era of Saul.

… That the similar pottery of late Middle Bronze, occurring both in the north and in the south, is related to the culture found only in the south at the later date is apparent from the descriptions of the two cultures. Of this earlier culture, which should be dated to the time of Saul, Miss Kenyon commented:

 

The pottery does in fact provide very useful evidence about culture. The first interesting point is the wealth of a particular class of painted pottery …. The decoration is bichrome, nearly always red and black, and the most typical vessels have a combination of metopes enclosing a bird or a fish with geometric decoration such as a “Union Jack” pattern or a Catherine wheel. At Megiddo the first bichrome pottery is attributed to Stratum X, but all the published material comes from tombs intrusive into this level. It is in fact characteristic of Stratum IX. Similar pottery is found in great profusion in southern Palestine … Very similar vessels are also found on the east coast of Cyprus and on the coastal Syrian sites as far north as Ras Shamra. [Emphasis Courville’s]

 

Drawings of typical examples of this pottery show the same stylized bird with back-turned head that characterized the pottery centuries later at Askelon.

… The anachronisms and anomalies in the current views on the interpretation of this invasion and its effects on Palestine are replaced by a consistent picture, and one that is in agreement with the background provided by Scripture for the later era in the very late [sic] 8th century B.C.

[End of quotes]

 

 

[1] It is interesting in light of this that Dr. J. Osgood has synchronized Chalcolithic En-geddi with the era of Abraham. ‘Times of Abraham’, p. 181.

[2] ‘The Arrival of the Philistines’, p. 13.

[3] ‘The Arrival of the Philistines’, pp. 14-15.

 

David and Elhanan

Published October 10, 2019 by amaic

by

Damien F. Mackey

 

 

“And there was again war with the Philistines at Gob, and Elhanan

the son of Jaare-oregim, the Bethlehemite, struck down Goliath the Gittite,

the shaft of whose spear was like a weaver’s beam”.

2 Samuel 21:19

 

 

Did Goliath have two heads?

It is not entirely uncommon for Australian mainlanders to ask Tasmanians (such as I): “Where’s your other head?”

The more northerly Australians can have a similar disregard for South Australians, who are, they say, “sure proof that Tasmanians can swim”.

So, might the biblical giant, Goliath, have been polycephalic?

We know that at least one of his massive heads was removed by the young shepherd boy, David (I Samuel 17:51): “Then David ran over and pulled Goliath’s sword from its sheath. David used it to kill him and cut off his head”.

But it seems that, in true Tasmanian folkloric fashion, Goliath appears (from 2 Samuel 21:19) to have grown another head, this one being removed by Elhanan.

 

Or is this simply a case of a biblical repetition, due to the insertion of a different source using another name for David the Bethlehemite: namely, Elhanan?

The matter is well resolved at:

http://www.carm.org/bible-difficulties/joshua-esther/who-killed-goliath-david-or-elhanan

in the article:

Who killed Goliath, David or Elhanan?

1 Samuel 17:50 and 2 Samuel 21:19

David did (1 Samuel 17:50) – “Thus David prevailed over the Philistine with a sling and a stone, and he struck the Philistine and killed him; but there was no sword in David’s hand.”

 

Elhanan did (2 Sam. 21:19)- “And there was war with the Philistines again at Gob, and Elhanan the son of Jaare-oregim the Bethlehemite killed Goliath the Gittite, the shaft of whose spear was like a weaver’s beam.”

 

The answer lies in two areas. 1 Chronicles 20:5 says, “And there was war with the Philistines again, and Elhanan the son of Jair killed Lahmi the brother of Goliath the Gittite, the shaft of whose spear was like a weaver’s beam.” This is the correct answer; namely, that Elhanan killed Goliath’s brother.

Second, it appears there was a copyist error in 2 Samuel 21:19. According to Gleason Archer’s Encyclopedia of Bible Difficulties on page 179, it says,

 

  1. The sign of the direct object, which in Chronicles comes just before “Lahmi,” was ‘-t; the copyist mistook it for b-t or b-y-t (“Beth”) and thus got Bet hal-Lahmi (“the Bethlehemite”) out of it.

 

  1. He misread the word for “brother” (‘-h) as the sign of the direct object (‘-t) right before g-l-y-t (“Goliath”). Thus he made “Goliath” the object of “killed” (wayyak), instead of the “brother” of Goliath (as the Chronicles passage does).

 

  1. The copyist misplaced the word for “weavers” (‘-r-g-ym) so as to put it right after “Elhanan” as his patronymic (ben Y-‘-r-y’-r–g-ym, or ben ya ‘arey ‘ore -gim — “the son of the forests of weavers” — a most unlikely name for anyone’s father!). In Chronicles the ‘ore grim (“weavers”) comes right after menor (“a beam of “) — thus making perfectly good sense.

 

Therefore, we see that 2 Samuel 21:19 had a copyist error and 1 Chronicles 20:5 is the correct information.

 

Hezekiah, Josiah, similarities

Published September 21, 2018 by amaic
Image result for king josiah]

by

 Damien F. Mackey

 

 

The reason why various commentators have been able to point to a host of comparisons and similarities between Hezekiah and Josiah is because, according to my biblico-historical revision at least, e.g.:

 

A Revised History of the Era of King Hezekiah

https://www.academia.edu/37440252/A_Revised_History_of_the_Era_of_King_Hezekiah

 

Hezekiah was Josiah.

 

My above-mentioned article, by the way, significantly revises – and raises out of a certain former obscurity – king Hezekiah of Judah as he is to be found in my earlier postgraduate thesis:

 

A Revised History of the Era of King Hezekiah of Judah and its Background

 

AMAIC_Final_Thesis_2009.pdf

 

 

The author of “The Passovers of Hezekiah and Josiah in Chronicles: Meals in the Persian Period”, for instance, who accepts the conventional view that Hezekiah and Josiah were two different kings – and who does not tend to believe in the historicity of Hezekiah’s Passover – has pointed to certain similarities: http://prophetess.lstc.edu/~rklein/Doc15/meals.pdf

 

….

The descriptions of the Passovers of Hezekiah and Josiah in Chronicles are centralized festivals, held in Jerusalem and linked in both cases to the feast of Unleavened Bread (2 Chr 30:13, 21 and 2 Chr 35:17), and linked to an additional second week of celebration in the case of Hezekiah (2 Chr 30:23). In 2 Chronicles 30 this two-week celebration is followed by various reform activities by all Israel in the territories of Judah, Benjamin, Ephraim and Manasseh. In Chronicles this festive celebration forms the climax of the reign of Josiah, followed only by his death at the hands of Necho. These two Unleavened Bread and Passover feasts enhance the reputation of two of the Chronicler’s favorite kings, Hezekiah and Josiah.

 

The meals in both cases are accompanied by a full array of the clergy from the Persian period [sic]. The addition of the Passover of Hezekiah and baroque expansion and development of the three-verse celebration of the Passover of Josiah may conform the story of this eighth and seventh century kings to the tradition of royal banquets associated with kings in the Persian period. Ahasuerus, for example, gave a 180-day banquet for all his officials, ministers, the army of Persia and Media and the nobles and governors of the province (Esth 1:2-4), only to be followed by a seven day banquet for everyone (1:5-8). Vashti held a simultaneous banquet for the women (1:9).16 Unlike the Persian banquets, the Passovers of Hezekiah and Josiah in Chronicles were not characterized by excessive drinking. In fact, alcohol is not mentioned at all. ….

[End of quote]

 

John Mayne investigates it more deeply in “Hezekiah and Josiah: Comparisons and Contrasts”: https://www.academia.edu/12836231/Hezekiah_and_Josiah_Comparisons_and_Contrasts

 

Abstract:

 

Hezekiah and Josiah were the joint authors of unparalleled and unprecedented religious reforms that found their purpose in Yahweh, and their presence in Jerusalem.  Through dissecting their methods and motivations, we can begin to uncover the full extent to which their reforming stratagem converged, diverged, or existed in parallel.  Factoring in the contribution of the Historian and Chronicler, the geopolitical situation, personal devotion to Yahweh, monarchical relationships with the prophetic conscience and each king’s lasting historical legacy, we can begin to also shed light on what role their transformative measures carried out on the macro scale of Israelite history. ….

[End of quote]

 

Previously I have written:

 

“There was no one like him [Hezekiah] among all the kings of Judah, either before him or after him.”  2 Kings 18:5 (NIV?) “Neither before nor after Josiah was there a king like him …”  2 Kings 23:25 (NIV?)

 

 

“The reigns of the goodly, reforming kings Hezekiah and Josiah are so alike – with quite an amazing collection of same-named officials – that I had actually once begun a series (but then scrapped it) in which I had attempted an identification of Hezekiah with Josiah”.

 

Since writing this I have stumbled (again) on The Domain of Man’s Chart 37, which shows up some striking comparisons between Hezekiah and Josiah (I do not necessarily endorse every single detail to be found in this chart): http://www.domainofman.com/book/chart-37.html

 

 

Comparison of Hezekiah and Josiah Narratives

 

 

Hezekiah Narrative
2 Chron. 29-32
2 Kings 18-20
Book of Isaiah
Josiah Narrative
2 Chron. 34-35
2 Kings 22-23
Book of Jeremiah
Hezekiah, “son” of Ahaz
mother:  Abijah daughter of Zechariah
Josiah, “son” of Amon
mother:  Jedidah daughter of Adaiah
25 years at ascension, reigned 29 years 8 years at ascension, reigned 31 years
“There was no one like him [Hezekiah] among all the kings of Judah, either before him or after him.”  2 Kings 18:5 (NIV?) “Neither before nor after Josiah was there a king like him …”  2 Kings 23:25 (NIV?)
Jerusalem to be spared destruction in his lifetime
2 Kings 19:1; 20:2-19; 2 Chron. 32:20,26
Jerusalem to be spared destruction in his lifetime
(2 Kings 22:14-20; 2 Chron. 34:22-28)
Revival of Laws of Moses
“according to what was written”
2 Chron. 30:5,16, 18; 31:2-7,15
Discovery of the Book of the Law (of Moses)
2 Kings 22:8-10; 2 Chron. 34:14-15
Passover Celebration Passover Celebration
“For since the days of Solomon son of David king of Israel there had been nothing like this in Jerusalem.”
2 Chron. 30:26
“Not since the days of the Judges (Samuel) who led Israel, nor throughout the days of the kings of Israel and the kings of Judah, had any such Passover been observed.”  2 Kings 23:22
Year not given
14th day of the second month
Year 18
14th day of the first month
17,000 sheep and goats, 1,000 bulls
(not including the sacrifices of the first seven days)  (1 Chron. 30:24)
30,000 sheep and goats, 3,000 cattle
Participating tribes:  Judah and Benjamin,
Manasseh, Ephraim,
Asher, Zebulun & Issachar
(2 Chron. 31:1)
Participating tribes: Judah and Benjamin,
Manasseh, Ephraim,
Simeon & Naphtali
(2 Chron. 34:9,32)
Temporary priests consecrated for service Employed “lay people” 2 Chron. 35:5
“. smashed the sacred stones and cut down the Asherah poles”  2 Kings 18:4; 2 Chron. 31:1 “. smashed the sacred stones and cut down the Asherah poles”  2 Kings 23:14
High places and altars torn down High places and altars torn down
“. broke into pieces the bronze snake” “. burned the chariots dedicated to the sun”
Name Comparisons
Hezekiah Narrative Josiah Narrative
Sennacherib oppresses Jerusalem Assyrian oppression omitted
Name of High Priest omitted Hilkiah, “High Priest”
Eliakim son of Hilkiah, palace administrator Eliakim “son” (?) of Josiah (future Jehoiakim)
Zechariah (descendant of Asaph)
Azariah, the priest (from family of Zadok)
Zechariah
Zechariah
(variant of Azariah)
Shaban/Shebna/Shebniah, scribe Shaphan, scribe
(son of Azaliah son of Meshullam)
Hashabiah/Hashabniah  (2 Chron. 35:9)
Jeshua
Isaiah son of Amoz, prophet
Joshua, “city governor”
Hoshaiah (Jer. 42:1; 43:2)
Asaiah, “king’s attendant”
Ma’aseiah, “ruler of the city”
Jerimoth Jeremiah son of Hilkiah
Conaniah and his brother Shemei, supervisors
(2 Chron. 31:12)
Conaniah/Cononiah, along with his brothers Shemaiah and Nethanel (2 Chron. 35:9)
Hananiah the prophet, son of Azzur/Azur (Azariah)  (Jer. 28)
Nahath Nathan-el/Nathan-e-el/El-Nathan/Nathan-Melech
2 Kings 23:11
Mattaniah, Mahath Mattaniah (future Zedekiah)
Jehiel Jehiel, “administrator of God’s temple”
Asaph, Heman and Jeduthun
2 Chron. 29:13-14
Asaph, Heman and Jeduthun
(2 Chron. 35:15)
Shallum/Meshillemoth (reign of Ahaz) Meshullam (the Kohathite)
Shellemiah son of Cushi (Jer. 36:14)
No mention of a prophetess

[Mackey: What about Judith?]

Huldah, wife of Shallam/Meshullam,
prophetess (spokeswoman of the “Lord”)
Shemaiah Shemaiah
Jozabad Jozabad
Jeiel Jeiel
Joah son of Zimmah (“wicked”)
Joah son of Asaph, recorder
Joah son of “wicked” Jo-Ahaz (King Ahaz)/
Imnah?
Obed, prophet (reign of Ahaz), Abde-el, Tabeel Obadiah

 

 

The least reconcilable detail of comparison at this stage has to be this one:

 

 

Hezekiah                                                Josiah

 

25 years at ascension, reigned 29 years 8 years at ascension, reigned 31 years

 

I do not have any convincing solution for this one.

A thought: Could it be that some biographical details for Josiah were confused with those of the earlier Joash (Jehoash), also a boy-king, who worked at restoring the Temple in much the same fashion as would Josiah?

 

 

A Revised History of the Era of King Hezekiah

Published September 20, 2018 by amaic

Image result for king hezekiah

by

 Damien F. Mackey

 

  

Part One:

A conventional overview of this period

 

 

My intention in this series will be to contrast the conventional king-lists for Judah; Egypt-Ethiopia; and Assyro-Babylonia for this period (c. 716 – c. 596 BC) with my recently revised version of it which will lop off almost half a century from this approximately 120–year span.

  

{The following dates are all conventional, and approximate only, BC dates}

 

Later Kings of Judah

 

Hezekiah                                 716-687

Manasseh                                687-643

Amon                                       643-641

Josiah                                      641-609

[Jehoahaz]

Jehoiakim                                608-596

Jehoiachin (Jeconiah)             596

 

 

Later Pharaohs of Egypt-Ethiopia

 

                                    Piye                                         744-714

                                    Shebitku                                   714-705

                                    Shabaka                                  705-690

                                    Taharqa (Tirhakah)                690-664           Necho I            672-664

                                    Tantamani                               664-653           Psamtik I         664-610                                                                                                           Necho II          610-595

                                                                                                            Psamtik II        595-

 

Neo-Assyrian-Babylonian Kings

 

                                    Sargon II                                 722-705

                                    Sennacherib                            705-681

                                    Esarhaddon                             681-669

                                    Ashurbanipal                           669-627

                                    Ashur-etil-ilani                        631-627

                                    Sin-shumu-lishir                      626

                                    Sin-shar-ishkun                       627-612

 

                                    Nabopolassar                          626-605

                                    Nebuchednezzar II                  605-562

                                    ….

 

 

 

Part Two (i): Sorting out later kings of Judah

 

 

Looking at the conventional version of the:

 

Later Kings of Judah

 

Hezekiah                                 716-687

Manasseh                                687-643

Amon                                      643-641

Josiah                                      641-609

[Jehoahaz]

Jehoiakim                                608-596

Jehoiachin (Jeconiah)              596

 

I can see some serious problems here, but also, now, I perceive the need to re-organise various things.

 

Hezekiah

 

With the Fall of Samaria conventionally dated to c. 722/21 BC, then the favoured date these days for the beginning of the reign of King Hezekiah of Judah, c. 716 BC, is blatantly contrary to the flat statement of the OT (e.g. 2 Kings 18:10): “Three years later, during the sixth year of King Hezekiah’s reign and the ninth year of King Hoshea’s reign in Israel, Samaria fell”. The Bible here assists us with a 3-way synchronism (Hezekiah; Hoshea; and Fall of Samaria) which scholars, though, choose completely to brush aside, they preferring to follow the confusing and erroneous (neo-Assyrian-based) chronology of Edwin R. Thiele, in The Mysterious Numbers of the Hebrew Kings.

 

If the Fall of Samaria is to be dated c. 722 BC (a conventional date which will end up in the long run being hopelessly inaccurate – but which can serve as a ‘sighter’ for the time being), then King Hezekiah’s regnal beginning has to be set at c. 729/8 BC, and not at 716 BC.

 

More will be said on King Hezekiah later, as we find an important regal alter ego for him.

 

 

Manasseh

 

Although Manasseh would indeed continue on for 55 years, it now needs to be understood (and this is certainly radical) that more than forty of those years were spent in Babylonian (and probably also Susan) captivity.

This situation serves to explain why the prophet Jeremiah could point the finger at (the conventionally well dead) Manasseh as the cause of the Jewish deportations (Jeremiah 15:4): “And I will cause them to be removed into all kingdoms of the earth, because of Manasseh the son of Hezekiah king of Judah, for that which he did in Jerusalem”.

 

More will be said on Manasseh later, as we find a regal alter ego for him.

 

 

Amon

 

How could this young king of only two years of reign in Jerusalem have gone down in biblical history as being even worse than his long-reigning father, Manasseh?

Thus 2 Chronicles 33:21-23:

 

Amon was twenty-two years old when he became king, and he reigned in Jerusalem two years. He did evil in the eyes of the Lord, as his father Manasseh had done. Amon worshiped and offered sacrifices to all the idols Manasseh had made. But unlike his father Manasseh, he did not humble himself before the Lord; Amon increased his guilt.

 

Once again the explanation lies in the facts that (i) the king continued on for a very long time in captivity, and (ii) he acquired a very nasty alter ego.

For a full account of all of this, see my article:

 

King Amon’s descent into Aman (Haman)

 

https://www.academia.edu/37376989/King_Amons_descent_into_Aman_Haman_

 

 

 

‘Alter egos’ now come into play

 

While I accept this standard sequence of Judaean kings so far, Hezekiah, father of Manasseh, father of Amon, I now believe that the remaining kings, Josiah, Jehoiakim and Jehoiachin, are simply duplicates of the first trio, so that:

 

Hezekiah = Josiah;

Manasseh = Jehoiakim;

Amon = Jehoiachin.

 

Sorting out some complications

 

There are complications, though, as I have discussed before, insofar as various biblical texts, including Matthew’s ‘Genealogy of Jesus the Messiah’, give Amon as the father of Josiah (Matthew 1:10), plus the fact that different names are given for the mothers of kings who I am arguing are duplicates.

Some versions of Matthew 1:10, however, give “Amos” as the father of Josiah, and Amos is a name very different from the apparently Egyptian name, Amon – probably given to Jehoiachin by his Egypt-leaning father, Jehoiakim, or by the pharaoh:

https://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jehoiakim

Jehoiakim, who was 25 when he ascended the throne (according to I Chron. 3:15 he was the second son of Josiah), was most likely selected because of his known support of a pro-Egyptian policy. Jehoiakim’s original name Eliakim was changed by the Pharaoh in order to indicate the Judahite king’s subservience to Egypt (II Kings 23:34; II Chron. 36:4). Egypt also imposed a heavy tax on Judah – 100 talents of silver and a talent of gold – which Jehoiakim exacted by levying a tax upon all people of the land (II Kings 23:33, 35).

 

Father’s names

 

I would now re-identify this “Amos” with Ahaz – whether this was another name for Ahaz, or simply a scribal error, perhaps a confusion with Amon – thus refining my above list to:

 

Ahaz = Amos;

Hezekiah = Josiah;

Manasseh = Jehoiakim;

Amon = Jehoiachin.

 

The fact that the various kings of Judah at this time had more than the one name (e.g., Jehoiakim was formerly Eliakim, 2 Kings 23:34; Zedekiah was formerly Mattaniah, 2 Kings 24:17) assists me somewhat in my case for alter egos.

 

Mothers’ names

 

The differing names of the women (mothers) can be accounted for, at least to some extent, by the fact that sometimes a woman was named “mother” who was not the biological mother. King Amon was, for instance, in his guise as the evil Haman (see above article on “Haman”) the “son of Hammedatha” (Esther 3:1); Hammedatha, a woman, being the mother of Amon’s (i.e., Jehoiachin’s) uncles (Jehoahaz and Zedekiah), as (queen) Ham[m]utal (cf. 2 Kings 23:31 and 24:18).

In the case of my Manasseh = Jehoiakim identification, Manasseh’s mother (2 Kings 21:1), Hephzibah, could perhaps be the same person as king Jehoiakim’s mother (2 Kings 23:36): “[Jehoiakim’s] mother’s name was Zebidah daughter of Pedaiah; she was from Rumah”.

Heph-zibah = Zebi-dah?

 

According to 2 Kings 18:2: “[Hezekiah’s] mother’s name was Abijah [or Abi], daughter of Zechariah”, whilst (his alter ego) “[Josiah’s] mother’s name was Jedidah daughter of Adaiah; she was from Bozkath”.

The latter, I find, bears some resemblance to Jehoiakim’s [= Manasseh’s] mother, “Zebidah daughter of Pedaiah” – compare with “Jedidah daughter of Adaiah”.

The location of Rumah (for Jehoiakim’s mother) “is disputed” (Nadav Na’aman, Ancient Israel and Its Neighbors: Interaction and Counteraction, p. 355).

 

 

Previously we found that certain complications inevitably arise from my re-casting of the later kings of Judah as follows:

 

Ahaz = Amos;

Hezekiah = Josiah;

Manasseh = Jehoiakim;

Amon = Jehoiachin.

 

But I was also gratified to find that, with regard to my dependence upon alter egos for my reconstruction, some of the kings of Judah at the time were biblically known to have had more than the one name.

We also found that, whilst mother’s names may appear to be inconsistent with my revision, at least one of those designated as a “mother” of a particular king was not in fact his biological mother, but was the mother of that king’s uncles.

 

The complications that arise from my revision do become more severe, though, for this next category:

 

Regnal years, ages at accession

 

In the case of Amon = Jehoiachin, the differences in regnal years and ages at commencement of reign can fairly easily be accounted for by co-regency, as I have already suggested.

And, whilst the 55-years of reign attributed to Manasseh (2 Kings 21:1) far outnumber the eleven years attributed to (my alter ego for him) Jehoiakim (2 Kings 23:36), the count of Manasseh’s years continued on, as I have suggested, into his long captivity in Babylon.

In the same way, Jehoiachin’s reign of only “three months” in Jerusalem (2 Kings 24:8), will be extended to his “thirty-seventh year” in captivity in 2 Kings 25:27.

 

However, there is a big discrepancy, much harder to account for, in the case of my:

 

Hezekiah = Josiah.

 

“[Hezekiah] was twenty-five years old when he became king, and he reigned in Jerusalem twenty-nine years” (2 King 18:2).

Josiah was eight years old when he became king, and he reigned in Jerusalem thirty-one years (2 Kings 22:1)”.

 

At this stage, I do not have a satisfactory solution to this very large discrepancy in age at accession (25 years versus 8 years).

Added to this is the fact that Sirach praises Hezekiah (48:17-22) and Josiah (49:1-3) as if referring to two separate kings, concluding with (49:4): “Except for David and Hezekiah and Josiah, all of them were great sinners, for they abandoned the law of the Most High; the kings of Judah came to an end”.

 

Places of burial

 

Francesca Stavrakopoulou provides a useful comment on the burials of the kings in question in this article, “Exploring the Garden of Uzza: Death, Burial and Ideologies of Kingship”: https://www.jstor.org/stable/pdf/42614642.pdf

 

As is well known, almost every Judahite monarch up to and including Ahaz is said to have been buried “with his ancestors in the City of David” (2), whilst the burial notices for Ahaz’s successors are either inconsistent or non-existent: Manasseh is buried “in the garden of his house in the Garden of Uzza” (2 Kgs 21,18); Amon’s body is interred “in his tomb in the Garden of Uzza” (21 ,26); Josiah is buried “in his tomb” (23,30); the resting places of Hezekiah and Jehoiakim go unmentioned though their deaths are acknowledged (20,21; 24,6); Jehoahaz is said to die whilst in Egyptian captivity (23,34); and neither the deaths nor the burials of Jehoiachin and Zedekiah are noted. Given the important theological and narrative functions of the death and burial notices in emphasizing the continuity of the Davidic dynasty (3), these variations have proved problematic for many commentators. ….

 

Interestingly, here, the two kings of Judah who went into long captivity, Manasseh and Amon, were buried in the same place, in their palace garden (“the Garden of Uzza”).

Considering that Amon, as Haman, was killed in his palace, in Susa, then this unknown “Garden” must have been situated in Susa.

And that would explain why neither Manasseh, nor Amon, was buried – like their ancestors were – “in the City of David”.

‘The death and burial of king Jehoiachin is not noted’ because these details have been noted in two other instances, in the cases of Jehoiachin’s alter egos, (i) Amon:

 

(2 Kings 21:23-24): “Amon’s officials conspired against him and assassinated the king in his palace. Then the people of the land killed all who had plotted against King Amon, and they made Josiah his son king in his place”.

 

and (ii) Haman:

 

(Esther 7:9-10): “Then Harbona, one of the eunuchs attending the king, said, ‘A pole reaching to a height of fifty cubits stands by Haman’s house [palace]. He had it set up for Mordecai, who spoke up to help the king’. The king said, ‘Impale him on it!’ So they impaled Haman on the pole he had set up for Mordecai. Then the king’s fury subsided”.

 

“The people of the land” who then avenged Amon would have been the people of the land of Susa, some of whom would eventually swing over to the side of the Jews:

https://www.myjewishlearning.com/article/thriving-in-the-diaspora/

The Book of Esther tells that many of the peoples of the land became Jews or passed themselves off as Jews. While the obvious motive for this behavior was fear of the new Jewish power, the result was that people now saw Jews as a religious community that all could join, not just a tribe living in a certain land.

 

Part Two (ii):

Benefits from sorting out later kings of Judah

 

 

What are some of these benefits?

 

For one, with several of the later kings of Judah now identified as duplicates, namely:

 

Ahaz = Amos;

Hezekiah = Josiah;

Manasseh = Jehoiakim;

Amon = Jehoiachin,

 

then certain kings of Judah inexplicably omitted from Matthew’s Genealogy can be re-instated. I refer to kings Joash (Jehoash) and Amaziah, and possibly even their predecessor Ahaziah.

And, does king Jehoiachin (= Amon = Haman) need to figure anymore in Matthew’s Genealogy, considering that he and his sons were all slain?

This latter situation may also be the key to Daniel 9:26: “… an anointed one will be put to death and will have nothing”.

 

Secondly, with Hezekiah now expanded to include Josiah, this would fill out an important king of Judah who almost seems to disappear from the scene after only his 14th year.

That Hezekiah, Josiah, shared the same officials is apparent from this:

Chart 37

Comparison of Hezekiah and Josiah Narratives

http://www.domainofman.com/book/chart-37.html

which I accept in general – though not in every detail.

Hezekiah’s merging with Josiah would solve problems like this legitimate one:

https://hermeneutics.stackexchange.com/questions/1298/who-was-a-greater-king-hezekiah-

 

Who was a greater king: Hezekiah or Josiah?

 

About Hezekiah, we read in 2 Kings 18:5-6:

Hezekiah trusted in the LORD, the God of Israel. There was no one like him among all the kings of Judah, either before him or after him. He held fast to the LORD and did not cease to follow him; he kept the commands the LORD had given Moses.

 

But then about Josiah a couple chapters later in 2 Kings 23:25:

Neither before nor after Josiah was there a king like him who turned to the LORD as he did—with all his heart and with all his soul and with all his strength, in accordance with all the Law of Moses.

 

How can the reigns of Hezekiah and Josiah both be the greatest, especially when it is said of both that neither before nor after him was there a king like him? Is this a contradiction?

[End of quotes]

 

Thirdly, with the eras of Hezekiah, of Josiah, now crunched together, the respective great prophets, Isaiah, and Jeremiah, would become contemporaneous.

This enables for Isaiah’s “Suffering Servant”, so reminiscent of the prophet Jeremiah (but culminating perfectly in Jesus Christ), to be Jeremiah, now personally known to Isaiah (Jeremiah’s older contemporary).  

 

Fourthly, the traditionally well attested ‘Martyrdom of Isaiah’ at the hands of king Manasseh – unknown, however, from the biblical record of Manasseh, qua Manasseh – can be found in the martyrdom of the prophet Uriah (Urijah) at the hands of Manasseh’s alter ego, king Jehoiakim (Jeremiah 26:23).

 

Fifthly, Manasseh’s identification with Jehoiakim would explain why Jeremiah could attribute to Manasseh – instead of Jehoiakim – the guilt for the deportations of the Jews (Jeremiah 15:4).

 

Sixthly, we can now count the regnal years of Manasseh through the eleven years of Jehoiakim (the latter’s 4th corresponding with the 1st of king Nebuchednezzar, Jeremiah 25:1), through Nebuchednezzar’s 43rd (= Manasseh’s 46th); 3-4 of Evil-Merodach (= Manasseh’s 50th); and on for approximately another 5 years into the Medo-Persian era. This means that:

 

Seventhly, Manasseh can now likely be identified with the “Sheshbazzar the prince of Judah” (Ezra 1:8), who returns briefly to restore to Jerusalem the treasures stolen by the Babylonians, but who dies a few years later and is buried in the “Garden of Uzza”, in Susa (as I have estimated), where the executed king Amon (Haman) will later be buried.

 

Part Three:

Merging pharaoh Necho I and pharaoh Necho II

 

 

If king Hezekiah of Judah is to be identified with king Josiah, as according to this series, then it becomes inevitable that there can be only one pharaoh Necho, and that Necho so-called II, who killed Josiah, must be the same as Necho I of the approximate era of king Hezekiah.

 

Art historians find it hard to determine whether a pharaonic statue represents Necho I or II. Moreover, Necho I is poorly known – as is apparent from the following:

https://www.brooklynmuseum.org/opencollection/objects/3798

 

 

This sculpture [see next page] probably belonged to a group showing the king presenting an offering to a god. The inscription indicates that the royal figure was King Necho. Two [sic] Saite rulers had this name, the little-known Necho I and the more celebrated Necho II in whose reign the Egyptians circumnavigated Africa and attempted to link the Mediterranean and Red seas with a canal. Which Necho is represented is not known.  

 

Again, we do not know at least the Horus Name, Nebty Name, or Golden Horus Name, of pharaoh Necho I: http://www.phouka.com/pharaoh/pharaoh/dynasties/dyn26/01nekau1.html

Kneeling Statuette of King Necho, ca. 610-595 B.C.E. Bronze, 5 1/2 x 2 1/4 x 2 3/4in. (14 x 5.7 x 7cm). Brooklyn Museum, Charles Edwin Wilbour Fund, 71.11. Creative Commons-BY (Photo: Brooklyn Museum, 71.11_threequarter_PS1.jpg)” 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B/+tXUstEdhPcrlaaVqcrTStMRXK0wirDLTCtAEBWmstTlaYy0AQFaYwqdhTGWgD0VU+UfSnbamVPlH0pdlagQbaNtThKXbQBX2UbasbKTZQBBtpNlWNlIUoArlKQpVnZ7UhSgCsUpNtWdlIUoArbKaUqzs9qaUpWAztTQHTrkHp5L549jXHhB/Y8ZUYk2g7u/Su41Jf+JfcH/pk38jXExbotPjO7JIA5GetRIaOf0nUXttTnimYkg4bv8Ajwa6ywvLclXebC5yCD0I59T3964HX2On+I47hhlG4ceorpoNPsbmEXCncuM5DYH6VAHZ6wLYohtJEkiOSrocgjc2KoIAtuhUP5g5G4ZA5HY9R1/OsVZ1toIFDttX5QnYAHkVbg1gziRdqoMYwCcHHtWTvc0XLY1IWEUJLAZV0ODhc/OCaJZoVGdsMfORIzxx59RkgD36msO/uY7m2eNZGjViPmDbWGD2NY40mwUb5UmuMEYM0u4Z+nT86pPSxLXU6S+1FL9ltrCfdp8fNxIYkTe+fuKykhhwMsOO1ctreozz3y28bMVH+tcAYxnoKfq2pw2kJtY8AgYVR0Ht7VDpVux2CU4lkO9gBngCk9XqO9loWbCOUucMxwevcfl9KW/WTy0ViQnJPHQ9/wClbuhwxF1boTnORkAY4GPWl8TrASiQlAnPzjcc9+9SkO5h+EoN2rTyjlY4sDjHLH/6xrqCtY/gyL5L2TuZQv5D/wCvW8VroitDNlYr7UwrVkrTCtMRWK0wrVkrTCtICuVphWrDLUbLQBAVqNhVhhTGWgD0xE+UcdqXZU6p8o+lLsrUCvso2VY2UbKAK+yjZVjZRsoAr7KTZ7VZ2Umz2oArlPakKGrJT2pNlAFbZTSlWilIUoAqlKaUq0U9qaUoAyNeymi3zDgi3kx/3ya5LTIg2mohIL7AAxbFdl4lXHh+/OOlu5/Q1x2lXdsEjEuQrDCnOKzmNHK/Ea1j+yRyoBuHUisTw7qF2IDFCxYL1Q967LxDYG7tJQqhywJGPzrjPCUEkd9LKciOORY2+rbiP/QTUgaZmmMZWYNwPlw3Q5/XvUtvJKWIJKg55A6n0q1qQGSQoIxz7VVgQPOMBtoJO3P+fas+o+hHPcXhO0ZC9Pl5zVa5uL2Zv3aSA46gbRV50R7lgxU7gDgcdqtJCC6+WhQrgHnOT3NDlYaVzKsNMne7WW5Uu2BgZ+77mtl42t70QbeQijJ5IzWjYiO3udwXczrz83pzj/PpVGZ/tPiSc7QoUjOOnCim0JM3dIeMXDgbXYDG09veq+uAqJDHnpzg8AGo9ImC3EuY13NzvYn5eRyMH8Oc1W8UXJFuULfOT1HrUpaDuXvBXz6bcNnP+kMM/wDAVrbZfasvwNCV8PRuTkyyO5P44/pW0VrdLQgrMtMK8dKssvtTGWmBWZajZaslaYy0AVmWo2FWWWo2WlYCuy1Gy1ZZajYUgPU1T5R9KXZVhU+UfSl21sSVtlGyrO2jZ7UWAr7KNlWNlGyiwFbZQUqzspNlFgK2z2pNlWjHSbPalYZV8ukKcVaKU0pRYLlUoPSmlKtlKYU9qAuYXisbfDeotjpbP/I15xEypbQq8W5iBhj+tel+MyI/Dd5n+NRGPfcQP61wJhY28jeXjHIA6E/5zWcykPhiuJbVmjVGGCCWPABrJsdIMfh/X7pBueK4hcd/u5z+jmui05AkRYq23huBnjn+uK1fB9iLjw9qKzLhbuaQHP8Ad2hf6GojrJobWh5Ze3Ymw+SMDke9OgeSFg7YKuvX06H61Hp2nm7uChcqiH5iB29a3H0628p43D8AFNxz9aT0AxHu2lmRu4XBwO1WRcEygxbgMEjJ5qK4sxbyb9mU9jg/1pbOKR5ydrDB5z/9as201oUk09TbsisirNKPlXrnvWdpb7tXvJZDwGJJz7DitSzsmmim2lsqOmM5NYmnjbd3KZ5YnntnitUQWtOm2O7u7RnGVwM5PYdeKo63cuSJdny5yMn0NaVpZ7ot212KtgrycDHXOKzr63+0ajBaLgGVlRce5xQB6F4at/s/h6xjI58hWP1Iyf51fZasLEqIqKMKowBTWWtRFVlpjLVkrTGWgCqy1GVqyy0xlpAVWWoytWmWo2WgCqy0xlqyy1Ey0Aetqnyj6UuyrCJ8o+lLs9q1JK4SjZ7VY2e1Gz2oAr7PajZ7VY2e1Gz2oArlKTZVkp7Um2gCsUoKVZ2UhSkBVKe1IUq0UppSgCqUppSrRT2ppSgDhvHtzHNcWujoyeYxEzbmwAB0/r+lRaPqdhEslncwxOudokxwR9K5rxBObvxBf3iTb5GleONQM/KDsH0yBXX6XoFxFp6yPbKixgeaZuoxx+fHTvWW70KK/jx9GDRDR4fIQQAsgJILc5I9Bx0qW73aL4BkkBxKICR/vyH/ABauaQG98SRWiShxJL5bKD0XP+FdB8Wp/J8PxWy8efMM9vlUZ/nihdWM838PqPPKk5U4yM9c81o3VxEHbGCN3WsDT7vybuPkYPB9amu/MnMrIXKqNwPI5z/n86ykr6FJ2dzWkVJArKA3fmrOk2YjwDEMs2Qxyfw9Kz9NlLx+XtB+g/ye9dHo3lrKGnTegB+QE9fXiuRo3WpJbobV3GzODnHv7+tcnp8aR3lw7qQfOOBnpXawTK2oSyeXmKPk54BA5ya5gW7XmrrFbcmdyQqjJ5NdkdUmc70Z0uh61b6X4e1FEtlV7pVjiYcYx97J5OD7EVyPhmFb/wAcQkDcsO6ZuOmBx+pFbHjOGPTmWwDIWhjG8DkcqD1HHGcfWl+E1kri+1MqckiAE+3LfzWrWrsI7NkqNk9qtstRstaWEU2Wo2X2q2yVGy0gKjLUbLVplqNloAqstRstWmWomWlYCsy1Ey1adajZaAPYVT5Bx2pdntU6p8o47UuwVsSV9lLs9qn2Cl2e1AFbZ7UbParGyjZ7UAV9ntSbfarJSk20AV9lJsqztpNlAFbZ7U0p7VaKe1NKUAVilV75xb2c1w3SONnP4DNaBSsXxrKLbwpqUpHW3ZP++ht/rSeiGeR6BpN3fX1vaEZaQoxI75IPX1r0L4n6i2h6ZFoaDZNt/e4wdxODzj0zwK5/4eEx6h/atxvBg+dMEEZ6cD2GKxPGN3Nq2uyXN3LucncSByB6VhzcqKtc1fhnZm81V72QmQWinLkY/ePx/IH9Kb8Wt8uoW0SAssEDOR2BJ/8ArCu28E6T/ZPh2CGRcTS5mmyMHc3OPwGB+FcF4jaTUNUvr6NWZC+1CpP3cYGMey5/GiXuxBas81kVjKNuA3pn8eP06Vp6drM+mieGNY9lwu2RGAJxnI560+80iaaRhGScnPUDk/59KDpl5GpddwB57464OMZ4z7d6zvfYZFaTK7F1zuJ7A9a7LQreaaDLx4UZ5yOPrjJH44rndPiuhISQ0aZzlwxIH154x6V0qWJdC8t3I8hYhNjZPX0yDj8KyVNXNOd2KPiG6jhga3twuZnCkg9h16HH+etdF8KNMjs5dR8S3RjEenQllMg+UyHACj1bkcexritXVpNYS3hUkowjVMZyfpXefEW/g8L+Brbw5BNi/c+bfMB/GedueDxnn6D6V0RVtexkzzHxhrs93qF9lyEuHLMpHJPbnr/kV6N8OIYE8GWDQ8+YrM5x1bcc/wAsfhXiNzK0spfPJ9DXtPwkbf4KgTr5crr9Oc/1qobibOkZKidKtslRstaAU2WomSrjJUTr7UgKjLUTLVtlqJlosBUZajZatMtROtICqy1Ey1aZajdaAPZwmAARyKXb7VZmUGVyBxuNN2VuSQbKNlT7KNvtSAg2CjaPSp9tGyiwFfbRtqxso2UWArbKQpVnZSbPagLlYp7UhSrJSmlaLAVStcZ8XrwWfhdIuSbm4SPA9Blv/ZRXcXDw28RluJUijHVnYKB+JrxP4hapearq4ub1Hi0uAkWsePvnH3vc9PpWdSVkVFXZLpOprbeH3thG/mzyAZPTHHTp/kVP4S0JNS8UrMwL20CiaXI4LZO1fz5/A1x897JKFC/6peAK9S0CeHw14GtruQqby+HmIG75HH4BcH6n3rCKu79Cm7aF/wAaaqllZtZwyBbiVSCR/AuD+pwcVwrHzo1CDag4GDkkjqfzP/jvas+81Ca8u2lnmZyzlnJ56DP5ZwKt2ryxqsEWGGOG2gZA5zz25PJ4HpSqNthGyJYIY0BVVDZGQT2OOue/6fkObAtIfKAmjGUGVUscY69R25U/QerYpZUdysSqRt5wy5LE98dyTzz9T2qVVDJ8jJ5aFlBz97HJ6/wjOSe5rNTsW4kCwacUETRsFOMMVAI4A/kGP4irU13Z2tpKSjMAMKOvzE7uPfjH41T1DZHC0yK2EYjew6nr2/M/gO1c/qWpKtuHkjkEa58sFscn+I4PU/pWqehFmanh6zWwuv8AhIr3BaN2khVxlXfPPtxXn/jTWJ9T1WeWVySzE+gAP8hirupa9M8CWwldIOQEDnH1Hp0H1ritXleSZbeM5kf72P0FNdiWWNNCzyF9p8scIf617P8ABfJ8M3SHol42D/wBK8k06MQ2SqF9SD+Yr2T4LW5TwjJIefMunIPsFUf0NVHcGda6VEye1XGT2qJ0rQkqMtRMlW2Wo2Wgdym6VE61cZKhdPagZTZaidatutROtAFRlqJlq061E61IHt8jPNI00mC7ks2Bjk03bUqL8o47Uu2tyCHbRtqfbSbaAIdtG2p9tG2gCDbSbKn20FaAK+32pClWNntSFaAK5WkKe1WCtNK0AcT8WSE8LK3f7THtHqef/wBf4V5T4+uJF1RbMlmjjijYbh0LKMnH1Br1D42NJH4ZtTHE0x+2rmIHBb5X79gK8d8UXFxfa9cXF1aR20jhMxI+9UXYMDPc4rmqpN2NItrYoiNjhdyrkgHPbNdTr2pNf38So5FtbIsNvHn7qIBjPucZP5VnWVvHOok2qI7ePdLz1POPrk/yNFtJ5QlyyhtmBkZx3zUXAdax5tUJAZ2ikOT6n0/lWtayeXGgjaIuAGywPAx95sdT2AqlkzS2kki7t7necdQetQtDcRRYJEhDHaBkgkZwzHpx2rJPmkaNcqNee680M6SYduGPOUU8Ee7nP61ZiiUlYYUCkjaVzlVAHT6Dgn1NY8YMUQcPtP8ArM9eOhc/0qW41FrWwlkZWQpEWYY+6n8K/Unk0uVt6DvpqS6nLFIJmi3G0ssFy4O05z1PTJOf044Nee+I9SbUZpLyztpRaRvjzMEjPpu6E102vajouoeHdK0/S7y6uTua41ORwViQ4GFUkA5wSD+lcjr17LfzpZ2ymO1jwI41GAffFaJWIb0MW6umjjaVjkjpnnJ7VX0y1be1xLy/Xn1PT/Gp2g8+9KqN8cBx/vP/AJ/lV0qI0RFCsudzHH3vx/T6VZANJx8vTH5e36CvoH4c2BsfBWmwsuGeLzT/AMDJb+RFfPEkjeaijkk4H0r6E+HHiMeINLkjkjRLi02o4jGFIIO0gduh/KrhuDOgZfaonSrjLUTJWhJSZfaonWrrpULpRYCm61E61bdaidaQFN1qF0q461C60DuU3WoXWrjrULL1xQM9tRflH0pdtSovyj6Uu2tSCHbS7fapgtG2gCHZRsqbbRtoAh20mypytJtoAgK0hWpyKQrQBAVppWpyvtSFaAPM/jNcAHSdP3Y853dvoNv+Jrxq5uPtN1LM4HzvuP8AKvUv2h4r23k0jVLYlETzIXkyflJwRx9AfyrybTJBIQpG7cQc9AVByfzrmqfEXHY6WK3MekLBuxNMA8oHGPQYx24/X1pstiluk0pbLOApBXr0HHp+dRXt3KzrJnmVdwbOc8kH9c9KbMZDYlpZRuZxxI+AQOT9eSKgYxpSylFikCDhSAOB6elRvtj+bhW9TGePpim7yYSVVQuONrf1xxVizTewyHwpyd0md3t/n1qOVl3LEAkjVZLoZRmzyTlyB8o+maWeJp91rNIscUJ826lzwD3+oA4qPVbnyka3hjSRMZLnBycdAT2HT35rkrvUrmaxEVxdo0fmFvJjJ3uf9o4xgc/mfwqz6CTXUk8TawNRMSwqI7SIbIo1G3dz1NYN5exWdptt3VryfhSvSNe7fX0/OoNVvxHAd5DMxwAOM+3sP8/Srp1pI8nnz5Z35Pbj0/SmlYlsv2ECpbogUgkYA749fxp1+8cNuruf9nAHLH0H+f5VZkMdtGJJm5c9APmPoMev8vw5zLjzbm4E0yjPASNRwg9BQILZX3GedfmYYAxwB6CvWfgFKz6hqce7KiBD0x/EcfzNefWuju9qbu8k8qJRkKOrV6L+z5DnUNYlC4VYolA+pb/CrhuDPV2WomWrbLUTLW5JTZKidauOtRMvtSsBSdPaoXWrrrULpSAputQutXHWoHWkBUdagdauutQOtA7ntqL8o+lLtp6L8g+lOxWxJFto21LigiiwEW2jbUuKQrSsBFtpMVLijFAEO2kIqUikIoAiK00ipiKaRQBnazpdlq+ny2GoQCe3kxuQkj9RyK+eviTpWk6H4tn07RrXyYYYUWQb2cl2+YnJPoVr6UIr5k8WXY1HxRqt8G3xy3T7D/sg4X9BWNWxUTHgB4cnIzwDVu5mYsInLkKBuAQHk8nn8R+VO063V7hQ7KABk56Yz0rb1DwW2o25k0q+ltb9EyY5D8khIBxg9D79KysUc75gb5F2fN0BQ5/MVc1GWO1sI0RSJGGSMY9iev1H5+tc/Z/2lZXpS/mjkZCQYsbufc9q0GdriYyyMTI2MADgDHT8sUgEiz5WWwqqPf8AOuS1y9t7O+dgjFXBIUdveuw1KyuotHlnjik44wBjnGa8wKT3l+WlVgA3O4VVhE1hbm8uftM/QH5U9vSt1po4gHYZLHCgfxH2H+eg96rWdvjzJCcRRqTk8cdqlaMRkXMo/eEfIp/gH+PrUjRFcIUkaa4UtM44HZB6CtXw9BaqhuLkA85y36AfrVXSrMX0xubiRvJQbpWPYCk+1i+u8QqFgTiNewFAGxq92syKka/JXpXwGtkWy1W5ByXkjTj0UN/jXlciEptVsnGBgZr0T4B3pttTvtKmfi5QSxZPUoef0b9KuHxAz1llqNkq2y1Eye1dFiCoyVCy1cdaidaQFJ19qhdKuutQutAFJ1qB1q861A6e1ICk61C61cdagdaVgPalHyj6UuKeg+QfSlxWohmKTFSYoIoAj20mMVJikxQAzFJin4oIoAjIpCKeRT4beaZtsMTuf9kZoArkUhFao0e6C7ptsQ9Ccmql4lraoS8pYj8KlzSHY5rxtqH9k+E9Tvw2Hitm2H/bIwv6kV8xxsu3GffkV7X8ark6h4Pu7K2lCszoW5/hDAn+Qr5/a2u4VK+cQenWuepK7KSO48E20N5qQFys0kKYd0iXLMAf881ueM9etboNBaK0VvEwQ9QxPPPH0/8A19a8us7zU7A+bFOQcYABrSF00mjXM9w7tIpJA7ZbGT71PNpZDsVAPMmeckAMxPPaur8G6d9pk3xIGmXJBY4UDB5968+ntrsooWXA6lc1uaBrsdpai2vFkRo8iOUZOPrjn0/yaE7AeoeJ7dvD/g2a8vbiCU6gimzjDgl1IPzkY4xwOff6jweUB5ZsQjPmE4PPAPf1rpvFvim71uGzgIj8q1j8pSgKkgkn+tZGnWTTN5jZIzzQ2nsFhLO3i+xl7kARR/vWA43N/CP5n8qrwR3OrXYjjDEbvwFbo0pL1kTawA4wBwaZ4g1G08N2zWltse/YYIU5EQ9WPr6D86QGN4quksbIaPZtkDHnuD1PpVzwRojXaB2dEz/ePFc5pVs+o3jO7Fgzdzy2TXpOkOlrMYowvlBVVgpIyF5bn+tFwFutEKIpRASB6YGf8KteFJ08PeKNJ1mdVkt7e6Xz067o/uuP++SaemoSRxSmZgXSJAo9SW56+2az7vz7jSDHGMJwFB67skUwPtxfDHh+5iWRbKJkcBlZGIBB6EYNV5vA2hSA4jmj/wB2Q/1zUvwx84fDrw6tzkyrplurE9yIwM/pXQkitbkHFz/DzTG/1d5dJ9drf0qhcfDdDnydVP0aH/69egM2KjZqLsDzO4+HGoA/ur+2b/eVl/xrOuPh9rifdNpJ/uyY/mK9aLCoXIJzRzMZ4zceCvEMef8AQN/+7Ip/rWdc+GtciyX0u64/upu/lXuLsPaq8rZ4o5mFjwS50y/i/wBZZXKf70RH9Kz5YmU4ZSPqK+g5JEUHeRWTqmoabEv78RsfQgE0cwWIlHyj6UuKco+QfSjFbkjcUmKfjNWILC6n+5EwHq3AobsBUpCM1vWug5wbiY/RB/U/4VrWmm2FvgrbqxH8T/Mf1qHNBY5K2srq5OIIJH9wOPzrWs/DFzJg3EyRD0HzH/CunVwvGMU8SD1qXNjsZ1p4f02AAmMzMO8hz+nSrrwoibI1VVHZRgVL5g60eYDU3A5zWY5NpxmvNPFxuYw+N/5V7U6RP95Qaz9S0uzuImzBGxI7ipsO58jeJr2f7QVLHGeQe4rir6NA5RMEDpXvvxX8J6ruZ9P0CadSfvRJux+ArxfXfDmrbMy6feWsydGeBgPoeOlQ0UczLC2M4GB2qhqUpSzkVsAEDCk8H2p1/fXmnSmG8tGJH8SqSDWLqup/a4iI4JM49KQM6az2XtlFOh+YgB/Y9KiubMhMgH2rkdK1e40/IXcFJyQQa6Cz8QQ3CgMwU0Bcl8s/c2A+9dBolpm3KhevHSsyHy7p90JByc1b1m5vXiXQdDgmur+YfOsCFmjHpx3P6D60AUvEOvmyjex0qdEn5Ek4GdvqF9/euLtdM1HUbsQWym6nkbOATkn1ya9b8Hfs++ONbKS38KaXbtyTMcvj6CvoH4b/AAT8P+FI0kmP2u56s7DqadhHzr4H+GXjNIRejw1dTeUcqu0MT+GeeeePSuj0/wAF+Ky0Ji8E608kKuZvNspEDMRwRuAB57Cvry0jt7aMJAioo6Yqcz+9PkQXPkO38BeN9S864j8GarvIG7zIlg+fdnIEjKcfTNdF4e+DPj+4u7WfULTS7WEyiVhcXRZoxnJBRBg/QEfWvpgzj1pj3HoaORDuy1bAQ20cPyAIoUBF2gYHYdhQ0n0qg1x3zTGuB61VybF9pR61G0o9aznuvQ1BLdADlsfU0DNN5gO9QvOK53UtesrMHzZl3AZxurmdT8aSNlbRAB/eY4/l1pAd7c3kMILSSKo9zXN6r4usYNwgLTkf3BkfnXA6hqtzesTcXLSf7IPH5f41Reck4X5vT0oA6LUfE1/dFtrCBPQHn86wp7wtIWeVnJ6n71VSx/iYDjtTMgEEc/gAPwpgeurIgwuckAZA7Vat1gbmST8BXkGr3cja/fsk0gYXLrjfj7p2gfpTYdSvohmO+nQdOXJwfqeKqVR3Eke52xtI+UVc+veraXA7EY+teGR+INZjIxqMpYDIyAQR+R/SrcXjDW41H7+F/Ypz9O1RcZ7aLgAZzTxc/wC0K8ch8faihw9sj46gMRVyD4iNu2yWhyMZ2v0/DFFwPWRcgcZpftQ7V5lH8QbLI82Gdc+gDfyNW4vHmkP96d4/9+MincLHoX2r3o+1f7VcRD4w0eX7uoQn6tV2HXrGUZju4W+jii4HVfafej7R71zg1OMjIdW+hp/9oL/eFAHQC4HrQ06HqFP1Fc99vH96kN/70XCxtyR2Uh/eWsD/AO9GDWdqOheHr+Ix3ekWUqHggxCqn2/3pDqA9aAOY1T4MfDO/JL+HYoSe8MjR/yNc9d/s6/DaYkrDqEOf7lz/iDXoxvj/eppvvelZAec2X7PHw9tJRIsutPg/d+27QfyANeheFPC3hnwpbfZ9B0i1sweWcDdI59Wc5Y/iaU3oP8AHimG95+9+tFgN5ro9MgemKia6/2qwzef7VNa+AH3qYG2bsjq1IbvjOc1gm+HdqY98P71AG+10MfeqNrz3rnpNQAGS4ArM1LxNY2MZae5RfqaLgde12PWq9zqMMKkyyKoHcmvL9S8eTS/Jp8JwejvwK5661G91B915M0vP3ckKPw70rgemap43sYspabrp/8AY6fn0rltR8UapfMR5nkoeNsZ5H1P+FcyJeccnb2pyucYwTjt0FIC69wzZJbB6nnn8SaQPuPQHn8Pzqk0pJ/l7VJE3GDnP1oAuKwI5OV9O1BbscYPpUIfAwSBn2pQ2Tn09TVASMRyRge+MU0MAflHXvjrSAgenXsKZkl+enf3oAfrDEa1qIYhl+1zcN2+c/41XVyHwN3PGfvfn/n8Kn8QfJ4j1FXXANzJgjOeTmqhIZTwccdOc/gP89aT3AlLlcEZODnAb7p9uKeZD04APTIP4jPP6/8A64M5DIxBHTJz/WkUrt+YEr3AbikBK0gPJ2hgMHI5NNdyCFzkAYHzH/PrTGJ5GD7n0qJn5zmMA9xzg0ATmUkfxc54PemGQAgjnjnIAzURbII5BPOQ2aaxIPTP1XFAEruDyen6/wBaY0hGGRgue6DG79aiaRTg/dPs2P1FRs+AeuDzg9P/AK9AF1b67QAJdzgDkfOePzqaPXNTj4S/uBz/AH8isreCMhgSOv8A+umlj24z3zkUAb6+K9ajzi/Jx2ZAc/pUy+N9ajwWMLj3TH9a5cufuk/nUZcr02++Aefr60AdrH8QbtGxPaIfTDY/nVqP4gwdJreRPxBrzsv1UcDPB9Ka7lcbgNvr/nii4Hp8fjzS36ysn1qzH4v0uQ8XiZ9zivI3YEfdBBPGRULbckBeeuCtFwPak8QWUg+S6ibPowp/9rRHpKD+NeHlsfdbH49KX7XcxH5JpFwf7/X/ABouB7cdVUj/AFgx9aYdTU/xg/jXjCaxqcbfLeMfTJ/xq1D4n1CJlMuyTnHIFFx2PVbjWoIVLSTKv1NYOpeOLKEFYW85x/d5rzG81C5vp2kuJncE52qflApIivTlfxouI6q/8V6rfZEb+QjdMHJIrPVmZ98jtI57s2TWfG4B9M8e9To4PygcenXNAGgjjsQM9alEhxg1SQ9MkYxwMVKG4wMD2AoAvJIDgZ/WpFcemcd84zVSJgBlccdzmpUbuT/T/IoAmz8/O7jrjFTRccnC/Q1VRv7oGfyFSx4xkn8hQBaDKOnJPvTlfjPaoN2FH6ZoVuoBGB6UATBuePyFPBPUk/jVcP8AT8akU55J4pgTeKlC+J9QU/8APwxBPUZwfTpVAnIJKMeOCSB+Harvi9gvivUVO7/j4J9ew/EVnAkZC5z7cE/lwaJbgSmROvmBQCAM88c8UgfIBU5OcEjsfyqPexBBdj9OeOxzSMxYk7l39+Of8aQEmckMAc9QeD27dKjdyhwSo9jg5/PH9aY2TyVGe+1sU3LDhSwBBOG5FAEj9COR7YphY5wfyB4phc4KkLn/AHKR3PG4DGf7xH/1qAFLcAg5HtnFRliM4wMc5UH86aX7E/N/OmO64ySAByM8YoAezrw2AT6deKYzcEgEDvzmk8w8YfPtkmoyxBA4Ydjn9KAHMwBxuGD6jFMLcjlR6f8A66azEDGNwxyM/wCc1GZOqn+f60gHFsjDlmxx9PSoyRngEZ/Okc5568dximSHjsD6k9aQCM0fUsB79KjY8dSccjvSsx5IOR+YqIscjBoAM9lbio2Yjoq8evNK7g5B/wD1VGzEZB4x3zigYFuPlxj68VFI5GOuM880Ofm6E++c1EzlRkHH1oGKkg9vzqxGwPHT1qlE+QDzz6nrVmNsd859M0yWXoj7/wD1qsRnGM8/jVKNs+vuO9WI279BTAuRu39ePX8KmTJ6kH2z0qqjcDn8TU8bepP5/wCcUAXI2zgA9OgAzj/CnAjdzgt361Aj5GMgj07f41KpPboB+FAE6EsAOT9DnFTIRnjk+vU1XU9j/jUocnuR9OlAEpbnk4z3pwOAT0PuKjUZPf8AEZpxIx1/TmgBynPpUi5K9CajB9BnNPBOMkgD6U0Ba8cfL4s1IZI/fdOMfdXtWOTjI3AY4GR/kVtePzt8Y6lg8iUdR/sLWCSucqRgjsent296JbsCQsT1GQT14/mKaXJBGfzHTPvTdxA7njr/APWpGY8j+HHTGf6cikA4sckEgEcH1H+cU0tg8joc4/qKYzNyNw/z3ppf1HHYr2oAkMmAQWJAPc4waZuUZAT646U0vnOCVPtzUbFWHJyfzFAD3bHbI9+1MLA9D7HmkLDsW9fpTGYjByce/egBWPy5HT160xj7kA9hTcjkjr3J4/lUbMPQZ9Dg0AKcjDKAQKYxIGPmwPTimtjOdjemaYxxxkjFSAMcc/lzTWcDnkHvtoZz2POfTGajZhyBgeo9fagYO+0jLZ/DrTCecY70jEf3hj260xzkdsduKAFZnAwSeD+VROSfu4Y+gBzQxPYjOOCOp/CmOwxygI7g0DGsy4PQD6dKilK4yBweOCSKeze5yOhz/WoJScg4b6+tAD424AyDx6VYQ4xnABqorYAz+nNWI2A6dTzQSW4z7ZHqTirMZ6YJHoTVKM9+OKsxkd+PXuaoC5G3qB+JqdWHXP0JqrF68ceo6VKrHOevueT/APWoAtRsfU4+uamVvoD64/nVaM+pIP1qZWyPp78//WoAsIe3T261OG5PJqsp7EkA9qkVuwB9s0AWFY+350u765qIH+8afnjHP5UASg9uv14p4JxjHHtxUSHnp+VOxxkgGgDR+I7P/wAJtqanG0SrtIXkAxpkHHXnNc9ksORk4+tdH8T/AJfHep44w0R+v7lK5lvRh26nrTluwH7vRzz0PvTN3GcqBjsMA/hTexwp56jr+lM3HcCTyeeg/nSAeWw3H86azEMCOo646imMR93gDHTIJH4ZpC3qCRjqOaAHsy4+8SOopjPnqQT9BTS3zEhiM9cGms2SRx+VACknjkYPrTS3GcgepJpje3r3A/rSbj1Bx/n2oAGbnkk+vBP60x3GM9BjnOef6UjsT0Jz1HNRlueDz+VIAZsnlhnvzmmEjHGMex6UjHscfTHSmMVHXI9MnFIY5myDluO/amMxzgtn8aaxz0yxH+1mmEjHsPU9PrQArNng8ntxnNRs3OCOfpQzcYbioy3bgewoGKzD/ZP0qNiBkHIB9Kcxb2/OoSwH+yT6jg/40AKWU8YJ+uKhlOBkZGKczHr/ADOKhlbGeRz780APiOQO/wBKsIe2R9MVViPTBqZG5wOv0oJLkbenFWIjzVJD9fwPFWYyO1NAW4mVhkAnHGcf41ZjOMelVIz9fyqdDg5Jz+HWmBaRjx6fTrUynoCearofw+vFSq3PGB/WgCyhzz61KMnAxn61XUnqf5VMrDH+BoAmU8+v41ICccfpVcHPsPpUq8jPGKAJVPPzZ9qf0Pb6VGO2CaljHpj8KAP/2Q==” border=”0″ v:shapes=”Picture_x0020_6″>

 

 

It becomes inevitable now, also, that Psamtik (Psammetichus) I, son of Necho I, be identified with Psamtik (Psammetichus) II, son of Necho II.

 

 

 

Part Four:

Merging neo-Assyrians and neo-Babylonians

 

 

 

If pharaoh Necho I is to be identified with pharaoh Necho II, as according to this series, then it becomes inevitable now that Necho I’s Mesopotamian contemporaries, Esarhaddon and Ashurbanipal, must be the same as Necho II’s Mesopotamian contemporaries, respectively Nabopolassar and Nebuchednezzar II.

 

For more on this, see e.g. my article:

 

Ashurbanipal the Great

 

https://www.academia.edu/33679189/Ashurbanipal_the_Great