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Perseus, Wanderings and Exodus Comparisons

Published September 11, 2013 by amaic

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[The AMAIC considers the Middle East – West comparisons of John R. Salverda as interesting, with some of them we think being very likely. But we do not necessarily agree with all of the following]

Perseus

Perseus Compared to Moses and the Danites of Jaffa

by

John R. Salverda

Contents:

The Wanderings

Perseus at the Danite seaport of Joppa

The Wanderings

The story of Perseus, like the story of the Exodus includes an episode of extensive wandering over African desert sands. “But Perseus, with the snake-haired monster’s head, that famous spoil, in triumph made his way on rustling pinions through the balmy air and, as he hovered over Libya’s sands, the blood-drops from the Gorgon’s Head dripped down. The spattered desert gave them life as snakes, smooth snakes of many kinds, and so that land still swarms with deadly serpents to this day.” (Ovid’s Metamorphoses 4.770) For when the godlike Perseus, ‘flew over Libya brining the Gorgon’s newly severed head to the king, every drop of dark blood that fell from it to the ground produced a brood of these serpents.” (Argonautica 4.1505) Notice the myth also has miraculously appearing poisonous serpents, and see Numbers 21:6, Moses had a curative serpent stick, while Hermes carried the caduceus. “Nimble knee Perseus, waving his winged feet, held his course near the clouds, a wayfarer pacing through the air ‘Perseus fled with flickering wings’ with Hermes’ wings though Zeus was his father; he sailed a fugitive on swiftest shoes,” (Dionysiaca 24.270) Notice the myth also has wings on which Perseus fled, and see Ex.19:4 where God’s Earthly wife was delivered from her slavery on “eagles wings” (The eagle is the well known bird of Zeus. In fact Lycophron, a little known Greek poet from the 3rd B.C. calls Perseus “the eagle son of the golden Sire.” Alexandra 838 ff). One may wonder why the myth makes the wandering of Perseus out to be an aerial phenomenon, but on the other hand, there was a very famous appearance in the sky associated with the Hebrew Exodus that lead the Israelites on their wanderings, the pillar of cloud and fire. “Thence wafted by the never-constant winds through boundless latitudes, now here now there, as flits a vapor-cloud in dizzy flight, down-looking from the lofty skies on earth, removed far, so compassed he the world. Three times did he behold the frozen Bears, times thrice his gaze was on the Crab’s bent arms. Now shifting to the west, now to the east, how often changed his course'” (Ovid, Metamorphoses 4. 617 ff). Two towns are named in the mythic wanderings of Perseus, Joppa in Phoenicia which was well known and was mentioned by many ancient mythographers, and the Egyptian city of Chemmis. It is Herodotus who tells us that Perseus was in the Egyptian city of Chemmis before proceeding to Joppa; “‘they (the Egyptians) said that Perseus ‘had come to Egypt’ to bring from Libya the Gorgon’s head, and had then visited them also and recognized all his kinsfolk,'” (Histories Book 2 Page 91) Herodotus further connects Perseus with specifically, the Nile delta region when he says that it is; “the opinion of the Ionians, who say that only the Delta is Egypt, and that its seaboard reaches from the so-called ‘Watchtower of Perseus’ forty schoeni to the Salters at Pelusium.” (Histories Book 2 Page 15) Perseus then came to Joppa at the end of his wandering.

Perseus at the Danite seaport of Joppa

[Note: The city of “Joppa” is on the coast of Israel. At present it is known as Jaffa (pronounced Yaffa) and adjoins Tel Aviv.

As legend has it, Joppa was founded by Japheth, the son of Noah, just after the flood and was named for him. (The “tent” of Japheth included many Semitic peoples, Danes are considered to be “Japhetic,” so are the Cimmerians the Medes the Persians the Greeks and the Scythians.) It was the well known capital of tribal Dan, the seaport of Jerusalem and Hebron. Solomon had placed a fleet of Ships called “Tarshish” ships at Joppa. A land route was established between Joppa and the Red Sea port of Ezion Geber where Solomon had placed another fleet of Tarshish ships so that goods could be shipped back and forth from India/Ethiopia to the Mediterranean lands and beyond (Tarsus in Cilicia not withstanding, Tarshish is usually thought to be Spain, Tartessos). The city of Joppa was well known to the Greeks of the mythological age. “Red water, in color like blood, is found in the land of the Hebrews near the city of Joppa. The water is close to the sea, and the account which ‘the natives give’ of the spring is that Perseus, after destroying the sea-monster, to which the daughter of Cepheus was exposed, washed off the blood in the spring.”(Pausanias, Description of Greece 4. 35. 9)

It is apparent that this episode of the Perseus myth (where he destroyed the sea serpent at Joppa) is not a part of the original, but is a later addition to the story. Just as the city of Joppa could not have been included in the Exodus story of Moses. It must have been a generation or so after the death of Moses, who died before entering the promised land, that the city of Joppa became established as the capital of tribal Dan. It would have been even longer before emigrants from the Danite Joppa would have become established, as the Danaans, in the cities of Mycenaean Greece.

This particular part of the Perseus tale has often, and for good reason, been compared to the story of Heracles at Troy, which is said to have occurred a generation before the Trojan War. Hercules came to Troy as he sailed with the Argonauts. He found the city in utter turmoil, because its King Laomedon had cheated Poseidon. For punishment the god sent a sea monster, to consume his daughter the princess Hesione. She was chained to a rock as the creature approached. Heracles agreed to kill the monster for a reward. Heracles was swallowed by the monster, and after spending three days in the belly of the beast, he managed to cut his way out thus killing it. Heracles never got his reward so he sacked Troy, and took Hesione instead. Thus the story of Heracles at Troy is much like the story of Perseus at Joppa. There is also, because of the death defying three days, an apparent debt owed to the story of Jonah (the Septuagint has “Jonas”). Jonah, it is worth noticing, embarked from Joppa (like Perseus) and also encountered a sea serpent (Cetus, the astronomical name of the “sea serpent” of Perseus means, “whale”) furthermore Jonah, like Heracles, was swallowed by the creature for three days. There is at least one version of the story about Perseus that has him swallowed by Cetus, for Lycophron, even so far back in history as the third century B.C. tells us that the sea monster, in its attempt to devour Andromeda “leapt in quest of food, but carried off in his jaws, instead of a woman, the eagle son of the golden Sire (Perseus) a male with winged sandals who destroyed his liver.” (Alexandra 838 ff)

As we have intimated earlier, a different source contributed this episode, a source that had a more intricate knowledge of astrology, for the characters included in this particular segment of the story, as told by those exiles from the Danite Joppa, have constellations named after them such as Cassiopeia, Andromeda, Cepheus, and the sea serpent. However none of the characters from the previous adventures of Perseus, neither Danae, Polydectes, Acrisius, the Gorgons, the Graeae, nor any of those Danaans who had fled from Aegyptus, seem to have been so honored as to be included in the stellar cast. Of course, Perseus himself is also a constellation but presumably, only in regards to this episode of his story, outlining his exploits at the city of Joppa.

The Joppa episode of the Perseus myth has a much more historic flavor, for here we not only learn that the sons of Perseus, after sailing out of Joppa, became the Kings of, and fortified the cities of, Mycenae in Greece, which we will detail a little further on. (A partial list of royal families and heroes that were known to the Greeks to have been descended from Perseus were 1. The royal family of Mycenae, his sons King Alcaeus, King Electryon and King Sthenelus, grandson King Eurystheus, and great granddaughter Queen Clytemnestra 2. The royal family of Elis, his son King Heleius, and grandson King Augeias 3. The royal family of the Taphian Islands, Kings Taphos and Pterelaus 4. The royal family of Messenia, his daughter Queen Gorgophone, and grandsons King Aphareus and King Leucippus, and great-grandsons the heroes Idas and Lynceus 5. The royal family of Sparta, his daughter Queen Gorgophone, grandson King Tyndareus, and great-grandchildren (in fact or putatively) : the Dioskouroi and Queen Helene. 6. The kings of Persia, from his son Perses 7. Heracles, and his descendants, who eventually assumed power in the Peloponnese.) “They [the Persians] were formerly called by the Greeks Cephenes . . . When Perseus son of Danae and Zeus had come to Cepheus son of Belus and married his daughter Andromeda, a son was born to him whom he called Perses, and he left him there; for Cepheus had no male offspring; it was from this Perses that the Persians took their name.” (Herodotus, Histories Book 7 Page 61) “Perseus, the son of Danae ‘ wanting to establish for himself his own kingdom, despised that of the Medes.” (Suidas “Medusa”) “There is a story told in Hellas that before Xerxes set forth on his march against Hellas, he sent a herald to Argos, who said on his coming (so the story goes), ‘Men of Argos, this is the message to you from King Xerxes. Perses our forefather had, as we believe, Perseus son of Danae for his father, and Andromeda daughter of Cepheus for his mother; if that is so, then we are descended from your nation.’ ” (Herodotus, Histories Book 7 Page 150)

Now, it is not my intention with this article to trace the Achaemenid Kings of Persia to Moses, (I shall make that the subject of a future article) but only to trace the Greek myth of Perseus to the story of Moses. However since serious Greek historians, such as Herodotus, Xenophon, and others, do quite confidently report that the Persian Kings themselves make the claim that they descend from Perseus and Andromeda, I would be remiss if I did not make a few remarks on the subject here. We know, for example, that the cities of the Medes were occupied by the exiled Israelites. (see 2KI 17:6 and 18:11) The Magi were the dominant religious organization, a tribe priests analogous to the Levites among the Israelites, officiating the sacrifices for those Medes and the later Persians. (“Deioces then [709 BC.] united the ‘Medes there are the tribes which here follow, namely, Busai, Paretakenians, Struchates, Arizantians, Budians, Magians” Herodotus Book 1, Page 101. See also Page 132,”‘ without a Magian it is not lawful for them to make sacrifices.”) However, the question arises, as to what the Magi had to do with those exiled Israelites. If these Magi were living in the cities of the Medes with the exiled Israelites, then one wonders indeed, what their relationship to the Levites was.

The Danites had a Levitical priesthood, it was not however, the usual one descended from Aaron, but instead their priesthood was descended from Moses (Perseus) through his grandson Jonathan (Perses). These Priests were known as the priesthood of Micah. (“Micah,” meaning “image” is a plausible transliteration for the term “Magus”) At that very time there was a legendary religious leader named Zoroaster, he was famous for, not originating, but for reorganizing the already existing Magi priesthood into one of the most powerful religious organizations in the world at that time. We are told that Zoroaster was born in the city Rages, (the same city, and at the same time, where the relatives of Tobit the Naphtalite lived Tob. 5:6) according to the Parse tradition in the year 660 BC. (It could have been he who was born to the exiled Virgin Israel nearly 65 years after the fall of Samaria, he was a famous curd eater, and famed for his “Zoroastrian” dualism distinguishing good from evil, compare Isaiah Chap. 7). Zoroaster died in the year 583 BC. at the age of seventy seven. As a major religious leader, he must have been aware of the destruction of the Jewish temple when he was 73, in 587 BC. this act may have prompted him to raise up a “Messiah” to overthrow the, Temple destroying, Babylonians, and to deliver the Jews from their Babylonian captivity.

Zoroaster lived long enough, (eleven years into the reign of Astyages,) to have, as the chief of the Magi, orchestrated the birth of Cyrus. We learn of the role that the Magi played in the birth of Cyrus from Herodotus (“Histories.” Book 1, Pages 107-129)…The name “Zoroaster” is plausibly a sleight corruption from the Hebrew for “Seed of the Woman” (Zeru-ish-shah).

So much for the role of “Perseus” in the Persian culture and beyond, an influence that is certainly worthy of a “Moses.” We may now return to the Greek myth armed with a better understanding of the conflict between the priesthood of the Aaronic Phinehas, and the priesthood of the Mosaic Jonathan.

For more articles by John R. Salverda on the Hebraic Connections of Greek Mythology, see:

“Helleno-Yishurin. The Hebrew Origin of Greek Legends”

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The Youth of Perseus

Published September 11, 2013 by amaic

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[The AMAIC considers the Middle East – West comparisons of John R. Salverda as interesting, with some of them we think being very likely. But we do not necessarily agree with all of the following]


Perseus

The Youth of Perseus

by

John R. Salverda

The Anakim (the Greek Inachids) were flushed out of Hebron by Caleb in the days of Joshua and fled to Argolis in Greece. These worshipped the “Queen of Heaven,” Hera (Ashtoreth) and his champion (Argos) against the monstrous Echidna. Not long after that, in the days of Deborah and Barak, the Danites, having had a falling out with the sons of Jacob, quit their homeland and joined the Anakim in Greece. (These were the Danaans fleeing from the sons of Aegyptus.) They brought the story of Moses and the Exodus with them to Greece as the story of Io, with Moses therein referred to as Hermes Argiophontes. A later version of the story was brought over by later waves of Danites who came to Argos from the city of Joppa over an extended period of time starting about six years after the death of Solomon. To these Danites, whom we can call the “Perseids,” Moses was not deified as the god Hermes, (a telling adjustment in theology) but was merely a hero called Perseus, a human son of the chief god. The story of Perseus is the story of Moses and the law giving, as told by these and subsequent waves of Danite emigrants from Palestine. (Those mythographers who told more recent “Perseus” version of the Exodus must have known that the already extant “Hermes Argiophontes” version was the same story, for the god Hermes was liberally written into the story of Perseus. “Perseus ‘ received from Mercury [Hermes], who is thought to have loved him, talaria and petasos, and, in addition, a helmet which kept its wearer from being seen by an enemy. [Hyginus Astronomica 2.12])

The myths of Perseus meeting the Graeae, and that of Perseus verses the Gorgons, as well as Perseus killing the sea serpent, are most likely two or three separate versions of the Moses story that were brought to Greece over a prolonged period of time, about three or four generations, and were forged into episodes of the same tale. These various episodes display the influence from at least three distinct groups of people. The rendition of it that contains the “Graeae,” reveals a more Arabian, and Egyptian, flavor that can be traced to its Idumean, and Hagarite, origins. The “Gorgon” interpretation of the Perseus story, shows a strong post-Solomonic, Israelite bias. The episode where Perseus kills a “sea serpent” at Joppa is even later still and leans heavily upon a Midianite/Ethiopian and Danite/Philistine faction, for its point of view.

These Danaans, (the Greeks of Argolis) themselves claimed to have come up out of the land of Egypt. Herodotus has something interesting to tell us in this regard, he says that while the Greeks considered the Danaan royalty to be Egyptians, the Persians, who also claim to be descendants of Perseus, argue that Perseus was not an Egyptian at all but was an Assyrian. Ovid, on the other hand, says that the Danaans were of the Cadmean (Phoenician) race and he even refers to Perseus at least once as “Agenorides,” a descendant of Agenor, the father of Cadmus, Europa and Phoenix. Herodotus even mentions the name of the Egyptian city from which came these Danaans, he calls it Chemmis and says, “The Egyptians are averse to adopt Greek customs, or, in a word, those of any other nation. This feeling is almost universal among them. At Chemmis, however, which is a large city in the Thebaic canton, near Neapolis, there is a square enclosure sacred to Perseus, son of Danae. … Inside this precinct is a temple, and in the temple an image of Perseus. … I made inquiries of the Chemmites why it was that Perseus appeared to them and not elsewhere in Egypt, … to which they answered, “that Perseus belonged to their city by birth. Danaus and Lynceus were Chemmites before they set sail for Greece, and from them Perseus was descended,” they said, tracing the genealogy; “and he, … paid them a visit, and acknowledged them for his kinsmen he had heard the name of their city from his mother ‘”. (Herodotus Book 2 Page 91)

The Danaans then, were a group whom the Greeks thought of, at first, as coming up out of the land of Egypt, but about seven generations later these same Danaans were coming out of Joppa in Phoenicia. This is just what we would expect of the Biblical Danites who did come up out of Egypt to live in the seaport of Joppa.

Having explained a bit about the people who told the story of Perseus, we shall begin to cover the individual motifs of the story itself. First of all there is the virgin birth; If Perseus is Moses, then Why isn’t Moses born of a virgin like Perseus? Well he is, because Israel is the Virgin. In the book of Deuteronomy chapter 18 verses 15 through 18, God promises to Moses that He will raise up a special prophet who will be born to the nation of Israel like he was.

It is not unusual for a nation, a city, a church, or a population, to be figuratively symbolized as a female character. Even modern nations, (without, presumably, resorting to idolatry), have similar traditions. The U.S.A. has its “Columbia,” the U.K. has “Britannia,” and Rome had its “Roma,” all feminine personifications that are symbolic of each their own national spirit. The nation of Israel was also referred to as a “woman,” and the “maiden,” and the “virgin,” she was known as Zion (or Jerusalem) and called the “bride,” or “wife,” of God. The slaying of Medusa is portrayed as a prerequisite to freedom for the captive mother of Perseus, “Danae.” Danae was the earthly wife of Zeus, and she was being held captive by an earthly king, there can be no mistake in identifying her with Zion, the nation that gave birth to Moses. It is evident that while in Egypt, the Israelites pronounced the name “Zion,” as “Zoan,” it was the name of the City-state of their captivity, “the field of Zoan.” The classical Greeks knew of this place and called it “Tanis,” they identified the goddess, who was named after this place, with “Athena.” In the Assyrian cuneiform inscriptions, the same Egyptian district was called, “Sinu.” A clever philologist can find this far famed woman’s name throughout ancient literature, besides those already mentioned, here is a partial list of the name Zion transliterated; Diana, Dione, Deino, Dion, Dinah, Sinai, Hesione, Thyone, (even backwards) Anath, Neith, and Nut.

Robert Graves, in book 1 of his two volume work, “the Greek myths,” (60.1,3) says that the Greek Danae was called, by the Hebrews, Dinah. Perhaps by way of explanation he previously intimates, that the Danaans who told her story, were part of a group of early arriving Helladic colonists from Palestine. In the Scriptures Dinah is the virgin daughter of Israel. Some did not believe that Perseus was the son of Zeus, neither did they accept the notion of his virgin birth, but instead they impugn his birth by insisting that he was the product of an incestuous relationship between Danae and her uncle Proetus. Perhaps this version of the birth owed some of its origin to the Scriptural one, it is similar to the parentage of Moses because he also was said to have been the product of an incestuous relationship. The father of Moses, a man named Amram had taken his aunt Jochabed to be his wife (Amram was thus not only the father of Moses but his uncle as well,) and Moses was their issue. According to the Greek myths, Acrisius, who has previously been identified with the Hebrew patriarch Israel, was the father of Danae, the mother of Perseus, while the Scriptural Israel was the father of Dinah, he was also grandfather (via Levi, whom the Greeks appear not to know about) of Jochabed, the Biblical mother of Moses.

Like the “seed of the woman,” the birth of Perseus was predicted before hand, and the king sought to prevent his birth, but like Pharaoh, and Herod, his attempt was to no avail. Should anyone claim to be the “son of God,” the Law would be in place to put him to death, thus, upon the birth of Perseus, the king proclaimed that he must die, the instrument of his attempted death, (and, incidentally, his salvation) was an ark, and the Ark, symbolizes the Law. There was a pre-birth royal decree in place to prevent the arrival Moses as well, and at his birth he was placed in an ark, (even Sargon the Great of Akkad, and Osiris, the Egyptian god, had an attempt made upon their lives in an ark). The identification of Perseus with Moses, goes way beyond their both being placed in an ark and set adrift on the water, but it includes an entire series of shared motifs; Both had their arks discovered by a relative of the king, both were raised at the court of the king, and each had a happy childhood until the king had a change of heart.

An objection might be made that the mother of Moses was not in the ark like the mother of Perseus was. Yes, but it is also known that one of the first things that those who found the baby Moses did, was to send for a Hebrew woman to serve as a nurse for the child, who turned out to be none other than the actual mother of Moses, Jochabed. Therefore, as it was in the story of Perseus so it was in the story of Moses, the mother in each case was with the child from his very infancy throughout his life in the court of the King/Pharaoh, however, also in each case, she was there as a servant only.

While most Mythographers agree that Perseus was raised at the royal court they usually refer to the situation of his mother, the virgin Danae, as being held captive against her will. As if to reinforce my theory that Danae was Zion, there is one very important ancient source, no less than the great Greek poet Pindar, who wrote about 480 BC in his Pythian Ode (12 Str1-3) who plainly refers to Danae as being held in slavery! The quote from Pindar runs thus; “Perseus … had made blind the grim offspring of Phorcys (Medusa), ‘ thus to end his mother’s long slavery…”. What the nature of the slavery that Danae was forced into we are not told, but it is apparent that Pindar knew of the tradition so saying that Perseus had freed his mother from “slavery” by his act.

Perseus wanted to take Danae and leave, just as Moses wanted to take Zion and leave, but the king would not let her go. However Perseus did go somewhere, for he first, like Moses, had to perform a task in the wilderness, which would give him the divine authority which he would need to acquire freedom for Danae. This is the point in the combined rendition of the account, that has come down to us, where the mythographer has inserted the Hagarite version of the story, that features the Graeae, it is also the point in the Scriptural story where Moses has his first meeting with God at Mount Sinai.

The Hebrew story has Moses taking a pre Exodus wilderness adventure to Mount Sinai, where he lives among the Midianites for quite some time. The Scriptures make this adventure to be a prerequisite to the main adventure of Moses, for there he learns to worship the one God of Abraham at His holy mountain, He there tells Moses, not only His name, but also gives him instructions and three “magic” tricks that he can use to deliver Zion from her slavery (Ex. 4:1-9).

Perseus also had “divine” training sessions prior to his actual adventure. The gods, Athena (delivered from the head of Zeus), and Hermes (the messenger of Zeus and deliverer of Io), each had experience to lend this new deliverer Perseus. What has Athena to do with the Exodus’ Athena (Parthenos) was a female personification of the city state of Athens, in the same way that (the Virgin) Zion was a female personification of Jerusalem. In truth, the “myth” about the founding of Athens is clearly derived from the history of the Jews. Cecrops the anguipede (serpent footed, this is noteworthy because wayward Jews blasphemously pictured Yahweh as an anguipede. This is such an outrageous claim that I implore the reader to look it up on his own. Furthermore, don’t let the fact that the history of Athens is full of serpents throw you off, because the tribal chief of Judah, the man who lead the Jews up out of the land of Egypt under Moses, was named “Nahshon,” the usual Hebrew word for “serpent.”) was the Athenian version of Moses, (or perhaps Nahshon) he lead the Athenians up out of Egypt (Sais = Zoan = Tanis = Tanit = Athena = Zion), gave them their laws and divided the land into twelve districts. He instituted monogamy, and was the first to recognize paternity (Egypt was a matrilineal society). Although the religion of the Athenians was corrupted by their worship of Baalath (Pallas/Athene = Baalath/Zion = Palestine = Philistine), still, intricate doctrines of the Jewish belief system, permeate the myths of Athens. There was a contest with Poseidon (Dagon’s alias Apsu-Adon), the symbol of the olive branch (Salem = peace). The daughters of Cecrops carried with them an ark and were given instructions not to look upon the contents, namely, a baby born to be the dynastic King (Erecthonius, also an anguipede) to the Athenians, while the Jewish Ark contained the Messianic promise that a baby would be born who would be the King of Kings (thus the little understood but widespread symbol of the baby in an ark, such as Sargon, Adonis, Etc.). The Mythographers who inserted the story of Athena into the story of Perseus must have known what they were doing. This is also true of the story about Hermes delivering Io (the “Jew”), which I have explained elsewhere. All three stories contain maidens who are freed in accordance with the will of Zeus, by smitten heads.

For more articles by John R. Salverda on the Hebraic Connections of Greek Mythology, see:

“Helleno-Yishurin. The Hebrew Origin of Greek Legends”

Medusa

Published September 11, 2013 by amaic

untitled

[The AMAIC considers the Middle East – West comparisons of John R. Salverda as interesting, with some of them we think being very likely. But we do not necessarily agree with all of the following]

Perseus

Medusa

by

John R. Salverda

The main monster in the story of Perseus is Medusa, one of the three Gorgons. It occurs to me that the most likely origin for the Greek name “Medusa,” is that it derives from the Hebrew word that has come down to us as, “Mitzwah,” which means, “commandments.” There were a lot of commandments (a figurative mountain of laws) but it was the head of Medusa, that symbolized the cut out tablets of the ten commandments, as opposed to the rest of the commandments, ordinances and judgments. The head of Medusa, was carried in a magic container which was plated with a precious metal, and was the Perseid equivalent to the Ark of the Covenant. “‘the head of the monster, the dreaded Gorgo, and the bag floated about it, a wonder to look at, done in silver, but the shining tassels fluttered, and they were gold, …” (Shield of Heracles 220-237) The special attribute of this magic container was that it could contain anything, no matter how great, within its space, without increasing in its bulk. This was probably in reference to the unbelievable fact that the ALMIGHTY spoke from the relatively tiny Ark. Medusa’s head was kept in its magic container because no one could look upon it and yet live, it was carried into battles, shown to the enemy, and thus insured the victories for Perseus, in the same way that the Ark and its contents were used by Israel (a rare motif indeed). The primary method of capital punishment that was prescribed by the Law, was stoning. This, no doubt, left numerous piles of stones as “monuments” to those who violated the Law, all along the way of the wandering Zion, just as we imagine the way of Medusa to be strewn with stone statues of those whom she had put to death. It is not inconceivable that whenever a violator of the law was discovered there was a ritualistic reading (looking upon) of the law that was violated which preceded the stony execution. Thus leading to the myth that it was the “looking upon” of the object itself that brought about the subsequent death. At any rate, we have come to a point where I feel that I must remind the reader; that as this series of intricately interrelated conformities, between the Greek myths and the Hebrew historic account grows, it leaves less and less room for the, “mere coincidence” explanation which will be offered by some.

When Moses received the second set of the Ten Commandments, he requested that God manifest Himself to him. God reminded Moses that no man could look upon His face and yet live, however God had a plan to protect Moses with His hand while His face was exposed, removing it only afterwards, so that Moses would only see God’s “back,” or as some translations have put it, His “afterglow.” When Perseus received the Medusa head he also had an encounter, the face of whom he was reminded that he could not look upon and yet live. The supreme god in the story of Perseus was called Zeus, and just as God did in the story of Moses, Zeus protected Perseus, in this case by lending him his shield. The shield of Zeus was highly polished, and with it Perseus would not have to look directly upon the deadly face, but could use it like a mirror, to see only it’s, “reflection.” Now that a point has been made concerning a connection between the “hand” of God, and the “shield” of Zeus, an explanation of the relationship between the cut off Medusa head, Daniel’s cut off Messiah, and the Law, presents itself.

Once Perseus had received the cut off Medusa head, the Greek mythographers have him showing it to Atlas, which put an end to him. To quote Ovid on the matter, “‘Very well!’ he (Perseus) taunted, ‘if you (Atlas) rate my thanks so low accept a gift!’ and turned his face away and on his left held out the loathsome head, Medusa’s head. Atlas, so huge, became a mountain; beard and hair were changed to forests, shoulders were cliffs, hands ridges; where his head had lately been, the soaring summit rose; his bones were turned to stone.” (Ovid, Metamorphoses 4.653). As the reader may recall, Mount Atlas can be shown to be a reasonable analogy to the Hebrew Mount Sinai, in place because of the sin of Adam, who can further be identified with Atlas himself.

We all pray for the Kingdom of Heaven to come down to the Earth, but there is something in the way, it is the sin of Adam, because of which, there needs to be a “covenant with sin and death” in place, the mountain of the Law. Years before Christianity, the Greeks also had a mountain in the way of kingdom come, their “Adam,” as Atlas, held up (away, a logical symbolic analogy) the heavens.

When Atlas was cursed to be the impediment to the Kingdom of Heaven, he was told that he could expect the son of god to come, who would kill the serpent, and pluck from the tree of the ancient garden. Quoting Ovid again; “Atlas, mindful of an oracle since by Themis, the Parnassian, told, recalled these words, ‘O Atlas! mark the day a son of Jupiter [Zeus] shall come to spoil; for when thy trees been stripped of golden fruit, the glory shall be his.’ Fearful of this, Atlas had built solid walls around his orchard, and secured a dragon, huge, that kept perpetual guard, and thence expelled all strangers from his land.” How many stories contain, the ancient gardener, the highly valued fruit of the tree with the famous taboo against touching it, an expulsion from the garden, the serpent, the crime against heaven, and a prediction of an eventual savior’ Just these two. Furthermore, the wife of Atlas was named after the sun setting, “Hesperus” (Evening, Eve’).

Medusa, like the daughter of Zion, wasn’t always repulsive, for the Greek myths make it clear that she was once quite beautiful, but, again like Heavenly Zion’s daughter, her ugliness was inflicted upon her by god. The once beautiful Medusa brought the condemnation of god upon herself, for the same reason that God’s once faithful city did. For as we are told in the first three chapters of Isaiah, (a name that incidentally, is much like the Greek name “Hesiod,” the Septuagint has “Esaias,”) specifically at Isa. 1:21, 2:6, and 3:16-26, so we are told in the Greek myth; Medusa had prostituted herself with a foreign god. She had laid with Poseidon, the Greek version of the Philistine fish god Dagon, (in Babylon, Dagon was called “Enki,” the Sumerian, “Ea,” and his regular title was “Lord of the watery deep,” thus, the origin of the well known, but little understood name, “Poseidon,” comes as I have previously said from the Hebrew, “Apsu-Adon.”) in the temple of Athena, (Athena, the reader will recall, is the Ionic transliteration of the Hebrew name Zion.) Because of Medusa’s prostitution, god had removed her golden tresses, and replaced them with ugliness. To quote Ovid, “Her beauty was far-famed ‘ and of all her charms her hair was loveliest; so I was told by one who claimed to have seen her. She, it’s said, was violated in Athena’s shrine by the Rector Pelagi (Lord of the Sea, Poseidon). Jove’s daughter (Athena) turned away and covered with her shield her virgin’s eyes. And then for fitting punishment transformed the Gorgon’s lovely hair to loathsome snakes.” (Metamorphoses 4.770) Compare this with Lamentations chapters 1 and 2. Another of her penalties was that she be doomed to wander in the wilderness, where Perseus would have to go to find her. Thus another entire series of Medusa’s attributes has a precedent in the story of Earthly Jerusalem. A further chronological clue can be gathered from this motif, for if we are correct in applying the symbolism employed herein to the Jerusalem that was castigated by the prophets, then we must conclude that the story of the “ugly Gorgon” could not have been imagined much before the days of the prophet Ahijah, when the northern ten tribes revolted against the post-Solomonic Jerusalem.

It has been suggested that the two episodes of the Perseus myth, one having the Graeae and the other having the Gorgons, were originally two separate versions of the same story (a “doublet”). This seems to be a reasonable conclusion, for the “eye” received from the Graeae could easily have been the equivalent of the “head” received from the Gorgons. The ancient mythographers, knowing both tales, may have simply crafted the two versions into the two episodes of the same story. Ovid combines the two episodes into one by making the Graeae to be twins, and thus only two, his quote runs as follows; “And Agenorides (Perseus) told him of the place that lies, a stronghold safe below the mountain mass of icy Atlas; how at its approach twin sisters, the Phorcides (Graeae), lived who shared a single eye, and how that eye by stealth and cunning, as it passed from twin to twin, his sly hand caught,” … (Metamorphoses 4.770). On the other hand, the scriptural story of Moses and the Law giving, where he gets the Law on one visit, breaks it and has to make a second visit to receive the Law again, is never questioned as a “doublet.” Regardless, that part of the myth that has Perseus destroying a sea serpent at Joppa is almost certainly a later addition that was contributed subsequently by some separate source.


For more articles by John R. Salverda on the Hebraic Connections of Greek Mythology, see:

“Helleno-Yishurin. The Hebrew Origin of Greek Legends”

Perseus The Graeae and the Mountain

Published September 11, 2013 by amaic

N4GIM05BHR

[The AMAIC considers the Middle East – West comparisons of John R. Salverda as interesting, with some of them we think being very likely. But we do not necessarily agree with all of the following]

Perseus

The Graeae and the Mountain

by John R. Salverda

As I have intimated previously, the Graeae have probably derived their name from a well known, in ancient times, Arabian People known as the Agraioi, who were Scripturally called the Hagarites. Although this great nation gets downplayed in the Scriptures, it must have at one time encompassed not only the Arabian Ishmaelites, but also the Keturite Midianites and even the Ethiopians and other Sabeans, all under the title of “Hagarite.” It becomes apparent that the Midianites of Mount Sinai were anciently considered as Hagarites, thus Paul, who wrote of an analogy between Mount Sinai and Hagar (at Gal. 4:24-26), had a precedent to do so. “The Hagarites,” known to Pliny (NH. 6,159-161), Strabo (XVI. 4,2), and Ptolemy (5.19.2), who called them, “the Agraioi,” occupied the wilderness of Mount Sinai and were largely of Ethiopian/Egyptian extraction. (From “John Gill’s Exposition of the Entire Bible;” Gal.4:25 – For this Agar is Mount Sinai in Arabia,…. The Syriac version makes Hagar to be a mountain, ‘ “for Mount Hagar is Sinai, which is in Arabia”: and some have been of opinion that Sinai was called Hagar by the Arabians. ‘ Hagar was the name of the chief city of Bahrain, a province of Arabia ‘ the wilderness of Paran, Gen.21:21 ‘ However, it is clear, that Sinai was in Arabia, out of the land of promise, where the law was given, and seems to be mentioned by the apostle with this view, ‘ . It is placed by Jerome in the land of Midian; ‘ Exo.3:1. And according to Philo the Jew, the Midianites, as formerly called, were a very populous nation of the Arabians: and Madian, or Midian, is by Mahomet spoken of as in Arabia; and it may be observed, that they that are called Midianites in Gen 37:36 are said to be Ishmaelites, Gen 39:1.) The Egyptians themselves referred to this people as the “Mitanni” (apparently the same word as the Biblical “Midianite”). They, as descendants of Abraham, believed in only one god, but it would be considered a dangerous heresy to even say such a thing in polytheistic Greece (thus the symbolism instead).

The Graeae are said to have had only one eye, and/or only one tooth between them, they used it alternately and were helpless during the exchange (The ancient mythographers, it appears, had some problem understanding how “two” separate nations could claim the same “one” god). The single eye refers to the single God of monotheism, and likewise the solitary tooth means the one word of god (the Law), thus, just as Perseus took these from the Graeae, at Mount Atlas, so Moses adopted these tenants under the crook of Jethro, priest of Midian, at Mount Sinai, as a prerequisite to freeing his people. The single eye of the Graeaes is not the only place where the Greeks have used this motif. Let us not forget those sun worshipping masons and metallurgists of antiquity, the Cyclopes. Because there is only one Sun, we are perhaps justified in seeing Sun worship as a step toward monotheism, especially as it was used among the Mithraic Persians, who claim themselves to be descendants of Perseus. Ahura Masda being the “one” god of the Zoroastrians, Mithra (sometimes identified with Perseus) himself could not have been originally thought of as a god but only as a type of Persian Moses, a mediator of the contract between God and men, a lord of the covenant (the Midian Baal-Berith). The eye is often a symbol of god, especially among the Egyptians, but also within the Chaldean sphere of influence such as the Assyrians, Hittites and Syrians where the winged eye was a widely used symbol of the deity.

Perseus visits the winged Graeae, the guardians of the Gorgon, at Mount Atlas, this was his first visit to the Mountain, where he learns how to get the magic purse. He returned to Mount Atlas, for his second visit, after he had obtained the head of Medusa. Moses, at the law giving, also makes two visits to his mountain. On his first visit he had a vision at Mount Sinai where he saw, before it’s actual construction, the “pattern” of the Ark of the covenant’s cover with the two golden cherubs bowing over, as if to protect, it. This was done so that Moses could oversee the accurate building of the Ark. Similarly, there was a town in Samos called Deicterion, where there was a “statue” of the three Gorgons. Athena took Perseus on a pre-adventure journey there so that he could learn what the Gorgons looked like, in order for him to be able to distinguish Medusa from her two winged sisters who protected her.

God would oftentimes appear to Moses seated upon the wings of the statue of the two cherubs (this was called the “mercy seat,”) that were sculpted on the cover of the Ark. “The Gorgons … had … wings of gold on which they flew. All who looked at them were turned to stone.” (Apollodorus 2.38-46) If an artistic rendering, or a symbolic description, of these appearances were ever to feature God in the symbol of an eye, then it would serve as the obvious origin to the motif of the winged Graeae having the one eye between them. Although he does receive a set of law tablets on this first visit, he breaks that set, and does not keep them. He obtains the commandments, that he will keep in the Ark, on his second visit.

For more articles by John R. Salverda on the Hebraic Connections of Greek Mythology, see:

“Helleno-Yishurin. The Hebrew Origin of Greek Legends”

Scandinavian Legends and the Book of Genesis

Published September 11, 2013 by amaic

Midgard-norse-mythology-23499804-2062-1312

[The AMAIC considers the Middle East – West comparisons of John R. Salverda as interesting, with some of them we think being very likely. But we do not necessarily agree with all of the following]

Taken from: http://www.britam.org/AesirSalverda.html


Scandinavian Legends and the Hebrew Bible

The Aesir Legends from Norse Mythology

by John R. Salverda

The ancient religion of the Northern Europeans was originally divided into two groups of gods called the Aesir and the Vanir. After a bit of confrontation, these two groups seem to have realized their relationship to one another and joined forces to oppose their common enemy, the giants. The Vanir gods, such as Freyr, were fertility gods who were associated with ships and pigs. I suppose that the Vanir stories represent those who arrived in Europe via the sea in ships (those of Danish descent, the Swedes, the Frisians, and the Jutes or Anglos for example). The Aesir on the other hand were wanderers, they arrived over land (the Saxons and the Scythians or Goths). The Aesir group is the division of Norse mythology that this article mainly concerns itself (The Vanir group, which also has many correspondences with the ancient Israelites, although much more Canaanite in nature, can be dealt with separately.).Although the Norse had the notion of an over all god of everything, whom they referred to as “Alfadur” (Odin is sometimes referred to as Alfadur meaning “All-father,” but this name is also used in a way that shows that the Norse had an idea of a deity superior to Odin, uncreated and eternal.), he was a mystery and they had virtually no mythology about him (after the end of time he is destined to step up and provide a new, perfected, Heaven and Earth). For all intents and purposes they called their supreme god “Odin.” The name “Odin” is to be compared to the name “Adon,” the very name that the Israelites used for God at the time of their Assyrian exile. To the Israelites “Adon” means “Lord” and the they used it because the Almighty’s actual name was considered by them to be ineffable.

Oddly enough, the Greek and Roman historians who looked into the matter did not usually identify Odin with Zeus (Jupiter), but with Hermes (Mercury) as the god of wandering. This is not so strange as it may seem because the ultimate origin of the Greek mythological character Hermes was the Hebrew patriarch Moses (the serpent stick carrying messenger of god who freed the earthly wife of god (Io) from her captivity and lead her on her famous wanderings, see http://www.britam.org/salverda/io.html).

That is why the day of Hermes “Wednesday,” as it is called in the Northern European languages, is named for Odin. The Norse myths about Odin, and indeed much of Norse mythology in general, is based upon the God of Moses and the writings of Moses.

Take for instance Norse mythology’s debt to Genesis, the first book of Moses. At the foundation of the world of Norse Mythology is a very significant tree (called Ygdrasill). It grew at the center of a place called Midgard (Gen. 2:9), where Odin had formed and placed the first human pair Askr and Embla. He imbued them with life and gave them spirit with his breath (Gen. 2:7). Here also could be found the Norse archetype of evil, a serpent called the Midgard serpent (Gen. 3:1). Odin, foreseeing the trouble that the serpent posed, made it an outcast by throwing the serpent out of Midgard into the sea, where it grew and grew until it encompassed the entire world (Rev. 12:9). The first born son of Odin, Thor (Torah?) is destined, at the end of time, to destroy the Midgard serpent and sacrifice his own life in the act (Gen. 3:15). This is the outline of a very familiar story indeed, one that could easily be derived from the works of Moses.

At the base of the tree in the middle of Midgard is a spring that is divided into three heads (Gen. 2:9,10) one of which is called “the well of Ymir” it is the source of all knowledge (of good and evil?). Odin sacrificed one of his eyes in order to drink from it. Although the source of knowledge among the Norse was not the tree but a well, this Idea is not foreign to Israelite culture, consider the concept of “Miriam’s well” as is outlined in Ginzberg were it is said that God made it on the second day of creation, and other Jewish Legends were it is said that the drinking of it inspired prophecies.

Furthermore, they had the motif of the fruits of the tree of eternal life. In the Prose Edda we read about a character named “Idun” (Eden?). Idun is described as a woman with a certain box within which she keeps the apples of eternal youth. The apples are eaten by the gods when they age to make them young again. The downfall of all creation is caused when access to the miraculous fruits are denied. The great flood is also a feature of Norse mythology. Odin killed the Giant Ymir. The blood from Ymir’s wounds flooded the world (the blood of Ymir is explained in the myth as the seas.), and the Giants drowned. Only one, (a hero named “Begelmir”), was able to save himself and his wife, these were the ancestors of all later races. Also included is the symbolism of the rainbow. According to Norse mythology the rainbow (therein called “Bifrost”) is the bridge between Heaven and Earth, as such it is the pathway between god and man, much like the Scriptural rainbow symbolizes the covenant between God and man (Gen. 9:11-17).

Just as it is in the Hebrew Scriptures, The Norse giants were not completely wiped out in the great flood of Norse myths. Nephilim, a Scriptural term, often translated as “giants” actually means something like “shades” or “ghosts,” is very plausibly the origin of the Nordic term “Niffleheim ” which is their name for the land of the dead. The usual term for the land of the human dead was “Hela” this was the Nordic equivalent to the Hebrew “Sheol,” this was the repository for the bulk of mankind, the heroic dead went to Valhalla. However whenever a giant was dispatched it would go to Niffleheim (the world of the Nephilim?).

The racial features of the Amorites was depicted on the monuments of the Egyptians at Karnak. They were a tall people of blondes and brunettes with blue eyes. The Amorites were identified in the Scriptures as the descendants of the giants (the fallen angels). They had a sacred mountain that was the cultural focus of their nation, Mount Herman. It was the “Zion” (they called it “Sion” or “Senir”) of the Amorites. According to Ginzberg’s “Legends of the Jews” Mount Herman was the location where the Fallen angels had climbed down from Heaven to cohabitate with the daughters of men, ostensively the Amorite daughters. It was very probably the religion of the giants that is referred to in the Scriptures at Genesis 15:16 as “the iniquity of the Amorites,” The religion of Moses stood in opposition to and superseded it (see http://www.britam.org/salverda/olympus.html).

In the Judeo-Christian continuum the giants began as the fallen angels who were bred into the Amorite nation. Later, when the Amorites were transplanted from the immediate vicinity, the giants devolved back into the fallen angels again, who would eventually reappear for a war against the good angels at the end of times. The Greeks, colonists from the Levant living far from the Amorites, portrayed the giants as leaders of a previous religious system that was defeated an exiled to the west by Zeus and the Olympians. When Olympianism took over the giants were pretty much out of the picture, a mere afterthought. However, for the Norse the “giants,” as a national historical reality, continued to be an ongoing concern. The Norse had to live as neighbors with the remnants of the Amorites, the Germans (named for their original homeland in the shadow of mount “Herman”). Thus Norse mythology displays an enduring preoccupation with the giants unlike any other tradition. To them it was not the “spiritual” bad angels who had to be defeated, but the gods and the giants were at constant war, right up until the end of time, and there was no certainty of divine victory either.

Finally, as previously indicated, there is the notion of end times eschatology, not many religious systems include the idea that there will be an “end of times,” an Armageddon as it were. This is a primarily Israelite notion, Christianity, an offshoot of the Judean religion, has it. Zoroastrianism (I would argue that it also is an offshoot of the Israelite religion, [see http://britam.org/zarathustra.html%5D has it. Muslims, another people of “the book” also have their version of it. That’s about it, however, in keeping with the topic of this article, Norse Mythology has a very detailed end times eschatology, therein it is called “Ragnarok,” the “twilight of the gods.” At Ragnarok will occur the final battle of all creation, it is the culmination of the war between the gods and those giants from the days of old. At this time the rainbow bridge between Heaven and Earth, (the Norse symbol of the Covenant), will be broken to pieces. Also this is when the firstborn son of Odin is destined to finally destroy the Midgard serpent. This cannot help but remind one of the Judeo-Christian end times concept of war breaking out between the great leader of the host of Heaven and the fallen angels lead by the ancient serpent and its’ destruction (Rev.12:7). From where did they get this notion? Well, I submit that they got it from the same source that all the others got it from, the Israelites, in this case it is a legacy of their Israelite heritage.

-John R. Salverda

New Series Also by John R. Salverda:

“Helleno-Yishurin. The Hebrew Origin of Greek Legends”

Taken from: http://www.britam.org/AesirSalverda.html

Scandinavian Legends and the Hebrew BibleThe Aesir Legends from Norse Mythology

by John R. Salverda

The ancient religion of the Northern Europeans was originally divided into two groups of gods called the Aesir and the Vanir. After a bit of confrontation, these two groups seem to have realized their relationship to one another and joined forces to oppose their common enemy, the giants. The Vanir gods, such as Freyr, were fertility gods who were associated with ships and pigs. I suppose that the Vanir stories represent those who arrived in Europe via the sea in ships (those of Danish descent, the Swedes, the Frisians, and the Jutes or Anglos for example). The Aesir on the other hand were wanderers, they arrived over land (the Saxons and the Scythians or Goths). The Aesir group is the division of Norse mythology that this article mainly concerns itself (The Vanir group, which also has many correspondences with the ancient Israelites, although much more Canaanite in nature, can be dealt with separately.).Although the Norse had the notion of an over all god of everything, whom they referred to as “Alfadur” (Odin is sometimes referred to as Alfadur meaning “All-father,” but this name is also used in a way that shows that the Norse had an idea of a deity superior to Odin, uncreated and eternal.), he was a mystery and they had virtually no mythology about him (after the end of time he is destined to step up and provide a new, perfected, Heaven and Earth). For all intents and purposes they called their supreme god “Odin.” The name “Odin” is to be compared to the name “Adon,” the very name that the Israelites used for God at the time of their Assyrian exile. To the Israelites “Adon” means “Lord” and the they used it because the Almighty’s actual name was considered by them to be ineffable.

Oddly enough, the Greek and Roman historians who looked into the matter did not usually identify Odin with Zeus (Jupiter), but with Hermes (Mercury) as the god of wandering. This is not so strange as it may seem because the ultimate origin of the Greek mythological character Hermes was the Hebrew patriarch Moses (the serpent stick carrying messenger of god who freed the earthly wife of god (Io) from her captivity and lead her on her famous wanderings, see http://www.britam.org/salverda/io.html).

That is why the day of Hermes “Wednesday,” as it is called in the Northern European languages, is named for Odin. The Norse myths about Odin, and indeed much of Norse mythology in general, is based upon the God of Moses and the writings of Moses.

Take for instance Norse mythology’s debt to Genesis, the first book of Moses. At the foundation of the world of Norse Mythology is a very significant tree (called Ygdrasill). It grew at the center of a place called Midgard (Gen. 2:9), where Odin had formed and placed the first human pair Askr and Embla. He imbued them with life and gave them spirit with his breath (Gen. 2:7). Here also could be found the Norse archetype of evil, a serpent called the Midgard serpent (Gen. 3:1). Odin, foreseeing the trouble that the serpent posed, made it an outcast by throwing the serpent out of Midgard into the sea, where it grew and grew until it encompassed the entire world (Rev. 12:9). The first born son of Odin, Thor (Torah?) is destined, at the end of time, to destroy the Midgard serpent and sacrifice his own life in the act (Gen. 3:15). This is the outline of a very familiar story indeed, one that could easily be derived from the works of Moses.

At the base of the tree in the middle of Midgard is a spring that is divided into three heads (Gen. 2:9,10) one of which is called “the well of Ymir” it is the source of all knowledge (of good and evil?). Odin sacrificed one of his eyes in order to drink from it. Although the source of knowledge among the Norse was not the tree but a well, this Idea is not foreign to Israelite culture, consider the concept of “Miriam’s well” as is outlined in Ginzberg were it is said that God made it on the second day of creation, and other Jewish Legends were it is said that the drinking of it inspired prophecies.

Furthermore, they had the motif of the fruits of the tree of eternal life. In the Prose Edda we read about a character named “Idun” (Eden?). Idun is described as a woman with a certain box within which she keeps the apples of eternal youth. The apples are eaten by the gods when they age to make them young again. The downfall of all creation is caused when access to the miraculous fruits are denied. The great flood is also a feature of Norse mythology. Odin killed the Giant Ymir. The blood from Ymir’s wounds flooded the world (the blood of Ymir is explained in the myth as the seas.), and the Giants drowned. Only one, (a hero named “Begelmir”), was able to save himself and his wife, these were the ancestors of all later races. Also included is the symbolism of the rainbow. According to Norse mythology the rainbow (therein called “Bifrost”) is the bridge between Heaven and Earth, as such it is the pathway between god and man, much like the Scriptural rainbow symbolizes the covenant between God and man (Gen. 9:11-17).

Just as it is in the Hebrew Scriptures, The Norse giants were not completely wiped out in the great flood of Norse myths. Nephilim, a Scriptural term, often translated as “giants” actually means something like “shades” or “ghosts,” is very plausibly the origin of the Nordic term “Niffleheim ” which is their name for the land of the dead. The usual term for the land of the human dead was “Hela” this was the Nordic equivalent to the Hebrew “Sheol,” this was the repository for the bulk of mankind, the heroic dead went to Valhalla. However whenever a giant was dispatched it would go to Niffleheim (the world of the Nephilim?).

The racial features of the Amorites was depicted on the monuments of the Egyptians at Karnak. They were a tall people of blondes and brunettes with blue eyes. The Amorites were identified in the Scriptures as the descendants of the giants (the fallen angels). They had a sacred mountain that was the cultural focus of their nation, Mount Herman. It was the “Zion” (they called it “Sion” or “Senir”) of the Amorites. According to Ginzberg’s “Legends of the Jews” Mount Herman was the location where the Fallen angels had climbed down from Heaven to cohabitate with the daughters of men, ostensively the Amorite daughters. It was very probably the religion of the giants that is referred to in the Scriptures at Genesis 15:16 as “the iniquity of the Amorites,” The religion of Moses stood in opposition to and superseded it (see http://www.britam.org/salverda/olympus.html).

In the Judeo-Christian continuum the giants began as the fallen angels who were bred into the Amorite nation. Later, when the Amorites were transplanted from the immediate vicinity, the giants devolved back into the fallen angels again, who would eventually reappear for a war against the good angels at the end of times. The Greeks, colonists from the Levant living far from the Amorites, portrayed the giants as leaders of a previous religious system that was defeated an exiled to the west by Zeus and the Olympians. When Olympianism took over the giants were pretty much out of the picture, a mere afterthought. However, for the Norse the “giants,” as a national historical reality, continued to be an ongoing concern. The Norse had to live as neighbors with the remnants of the Amorites, the Germans (named for their original homeland in the shadow of mount “Herman”). Thus Norse mythology displays an enduring preoccupation with the giants unlike any other tradition. To them it was not the “spiritual” bad angels who had to be defeated, but the gods and the giants were at constant war, right up until the end of time, and there was no certainty of divine victory either.

Finally, as previously indicated, there is the notion of end times eschatology, not many religious systems include the idea that there will be an “end of times,” an Armageddon as it were. This is a primarily Israelite notion, Christianity, an offshoot of the Judean religion, has it. Zoroastrianism (I would argue that it also is an offshoot of the Israelite religion, [see http://britam.org/zarathustra.html%5D has it. Muslims, another people of “the book” also have their version of it. That’s about it, however, in keeping with the topic of this article, Norse Mythology has a very detailed end times eschatology, therein it is called “Ragnarok,” the “twilight of the gods.” At Ragnarok will occur the final battle of all creation, it is the culmination of the war between the gods and those giants from the days of old. At this time the rainbow bridge between Heaven and Earth, (the Norse symbol of the Covenant), will be broken to pieces. Also this is when the firstborn son of Odin is destined to finally destroy the Midgard serpent. This cannot help but remind one of the Judeo-Christian end times concept of war breaking out between the great leader of the host of Heaven and the fallen angels lead by the ancient serpent and its’ destruction (Rev.12:7). From where did they get this notion? Well, I submit that they got it from the same source that all the others got it from, the Israelites, in this case it is a legacy of their Israelite heritage.

-John R. Salverda

New Series Also by John R. Salverda:

“Helleno-Yishurin. The Hebrew Origin of Greek Legends”

Salverda suggests idea of Amazons came from prophetess Miriam and her followers

Published September 11, 2013 by amaic

images

[The AMAIC considers the Middle East – West comparisons of John R. Salverda as interesting, with some of them we think being very likely. But we do not necessarily agree with all of the following]

Bellerophon

The Amazons and the Reproach of Egypt

by John Salverda

It is from Diodorus Siculus where we learn that the Amazons came originally from Libya, a land that we suppose began at the Western bank of the Nile River and ran to the shore of a huge lake called Lake Triton that occupied the entire Sahara Desert (not now, but anciently). Diodorus himself identifies this as the land of Mount Atlas and the Gorgons. They then took a large army of women into Egypt where they became allied to the Pharaoh, who was, at that time, Horus the son of Isis. (Diodorus places this mass movement of the Amazons into Egypt chronologically just before the deeds of Perseus.) From there they came up out of the land of Egypt under their Queen whose name has variously been handed down to us as “Myrina,” “Marian,” or as an alternative version of the name, given to us by Robert Graves has it, “Mariamne.” Diodorus goes on to say that they then invaded Arabia and took over Syria before they eventually showed up in Asia Minor. This association of the Amazons with the Libyans also associates them with the Egyptians, for the Nile delta was peopled largely with Libyans who worshipped a Goddess named “Tanit,” after whom the leading city of the district, and the capitol of Egypt, was named “Tanis” (not to mention the entire nation of Tunisia which is also her namesake). Tanit was perhaps even more well known as a “Phoenician” goddess while the Egyptians more regularly called her Neith or Nut and the Hebrews knew her as Anat or Zion, the Greeks used the name Athena. The Amazons were in fact well known worshippers of the warrior goddess Athena (Pallas Athene, Baalath Zion), who was identified, even in ancient times, with Tanit the chief goddess of the Egyptian city of Tanis, which city was otherwise known to the Hebrews by the (suspiciously “Zion” sounding) name of “Zoan,” the very name of the Hebrew home during their period of Egyptian slavery.

Now, the question arises; When were the Amazons in Egypt’ Diodorus himself gives us a clue to the answer, for he says that Horus, the son of Isis, was the Egyptian Pharaoh at the time. Since it was this same Horus who famously defeated Seth in a well known cataclysmic battle, and established the Osirian religion in Egypt. And since the Greeks have identified this conflict with the battle of Zeus against Typhon, and the establishment among the Greeks of “Olympianism,” we can logically suppose that the Amazons came up out of Egypt under Mariamne about the same time that Zeus battled Typhon. Quoting Herodotus, “Before men, they said, the rulers of Egypt were gods, … Of these gods one or another had in succession been supreme; the last of them to rule the country was Osiris’ son Horus, whom the Greeks call Apollo; he deposed Typhon [Set], and was the last divine king of Egypt. (Histories 2. 144. 1) I consider this is to be a fair chronological reference for I have shown in an article called “The Olympians,” that this was the exact same time that THE ALMIGHTY battled Leviathan (typical symbolic poetry used by the Hebrews to indicate the Red Sea crossing) and the Hebrews came up out of Egypt. Now, if the Amazons came up out of Egypt at about the same time that the Hebrews did, then perhaps we can find some mention of the Amazons in the Scriptural account of the Exodus. As we know, the Scriptures do mention that a large compliment of “mixed company” came up out of Egypt with the Hebrews, however, we certainly could not rely on such a general statement as this to identify the Amazons, but then, we don’t have to.

There was a group of specifically women who were detached from the men, and were lead separately, by “Miriam,” the little understood “sister” of Moses, at the Hebrew Exodus from Egypt. Furthermore these women had a very Amazonian sounding law that was enforced amongst them while they were in the land of Zoan, insisting that the male babies born must be put to death, but the girls should be preserved alive. Just as the name Mariamne, from the Greek stories, has it’s equivalent Hebrew form Miriam, (thought to be Hebrew for “rebellion” but just as likely from an originally Egyptian name such as “Meri-Amon,”) so, if the Greek word “Amazon” were the corruption of a Hebrew word, as many so called “Greek” words were, it could be referring to the “mothers” (ama) of “Zoan.” Now, the question must be asked; How many groups, of specifically women, were lead up out of Egypt by a leader named “Miriam,” into the land of Arabia and Syria, in the days when God/god fought the great dragon, were there’

While the Scriptures don’t seem to mention the Amazons by that name, the Greek myths do give a fairly thorough account of their peregrinations. Of course the Greeks could not read the Scriptures, and don’t seem to have had an interest in tracing the travels of Israel or any lost tribes thereof. The Greek myths are the reports of a disinterested third party, so to speak, and yet, they place the Amazons where ever and when ever the Scriptures, and later historians, place the Israelites. The Amazons went as foreigners into the land of Egypt, came up out of Egypt into Syria. (Io met the Amazons during the course of her famous wanderings and the first Greek hero to battle against them was Bellerophon, herein identified with Joshua.) Then, where the Scriptures loose track of the “lost” Israelites, the Greek myths trace the Amazons to all the places where historians claim that the Scythians and Cimmerians went. For the Greek myths then say that the Amazons went north to the area around the Black Sea, (near the Thermodon River, thence the Amazons are said to have fought on behalf of Priam’s Trojans. Achilles, is said to have killed an Amazon Queen named Penthesileia. Priam speaks of himself as having, in his youth, fought against Amazons invading Phrygia, Iliad 3. 188) and from there they began to take over Asia Minor founding several cities such as Sinope, Ephesus, Cyme, Myrina and Smyrna before they were again obliged to move, flushed out by the Lydians (These Amazons were thought to be of the Scythian race, but this should not deter us from identifying them as a branch of the Dam-ascenes [Ashkenaz] and Samarians [Cimmerians] exiled by Tiglathapilezer, as many do.).

Alexander the Great finally had to build the Caspian gate in the Caucasus to keep out the “Red Jews” and, guess who’ The Amazons, who were apparently with them, and, also apparently from this study, they were with (and in opposition to) the Israelites all along. At this point the reader’s mind must be running wild wondering what was the role of the Hebrew women in saving the ancient world from Amazonian feminism. Well, obviously it would take another entire book to explain such a thing. It would be entitled “The Way of the Wells” and would include chapters with titles like; “Eve vs. Lilith and the Head Waters of Eden”, “Sarah vs. Hagar and the Well of Ishmael’s Salvation”, “Dinah at Shechem and Jacob’s Well”, “Hebat vs. Persephone and the Well of Sheba”, “Zipporah vs. Miriam and Miriam’s Well”, etc. But, this is not the place for such a book, and it will have to wait until someone writes it. Until then all we can expect from this article is to touch on the origins of the Amazons as they relate to the identity of Joshua with Bellerophon, and in regards to how the Hebrews saved civilization from matriarchy, the next few paragraphs will have to suffice.

It is apparent that Egypt was matriarchal at the time that Israel was enslaved there. However, the Hebrew midwifes eventually balked at the Egyptian command to sacrifice the male babies. The life of Moses was nearly aborted under the Egyptian system, (in fact, overcoming such circumstances is a well known messianic attribute.) Miriam, the older sister of Moses is accredited with overlooking the safety of the infant Moses. (The reader is urged to do a triple comparison between the story of Moses, the Greek myth of Perseus, and the Egyptian tale about the infancy of Horus, where Horus is fostered by Isis and Nephthys at the delta city of “Chemmis.”) Although she probably nurtured Moses in the beginning, and was apparently reconciled to him in the end, “Miriam” was a “bitter rival” to the rule of Moses, murmuring and complaining about him throughout the Exodus wandering.

She denigrated the race of Zipporah, the Cushite wife of Moses and the expounder of circumcision, getting Aaron to join her in her in questioning the authority of THE ALMIGHTY’s chosen servant. Miriam said, speaking for Aaron and herself, “Is it by Moses alone that THE ALMIGHTY has spoken’ Is it not also by us that he has spoken'” THE ALMIGHTY Himself had to correct her of her error, reminding her of His direct support of Moses and striking her with a temporary bout of leprosy (Num. 12 :1-15). Although the “rebellion” of “Miriam” is downplayed in the Scriptural account, and gets rationalized in the legends, a more careful study of her story in conjunction with the Greek “myths” about the Amazons, reveals something a bit more disturbing concerning her rivalry. Moses certainly wrote Genesis 3:16, and it is evident that Miriam and her followers, the ancient feminists, resented their new station in regards to men. Furthermore, the Midianites whose priesthood Moses had married into, were strict circumcisers. (I believe that circumcision is patriarchal evolution’s determining factor, and the turning point of civilization, tipping the scale from barbaric Amazonian feminism, which included child sacrifice and even cannibalism, toward a slightly more refined existence.) They were proud children of Abraham, the patriarchal champion of circumcision through his third wife Keturah.

The Hebrews had a very hard time overcoming the influences of Egyptian matriarchy. Moses adopts the priesthood of his wife Zipporah’s father, not that of his own father, a point that causes the ever present “mumbling” of Miriam. On the other hand, it was the priesthood of Midian, as the descendants of Abraham through Keturah, that had more closely maintained the patriarchal Abrahamic traditions, such as circumcision and the name of THE ALMIGHTY, while Moses and Israel was being polluted under the Egyptian matriarchy. Zipporah chides Moses for not circumcising even his own sons. Moses, reluctant to be a patriarch, lets Miriam and the women march independently singing and dancing with their tambourines, and taking the credit for overthrowing the Pharaoh. Amazonian rites were also evident in the debauched worship of the calf god, but that was the last straw for Moses who would finally put his foot down. Even so the Israelites wanted to reject Moses and go back to Egypt. Those wayward leaders of Israel, the underlings of Moses, after much hardship and purging, which included killing many of them, would eventually come around and change their matriarchal ways. However, it would have to wait for a future generation to attempt a sincere effort to cleanse Israel of their Amazonian tendencies. Even they had to have one last plunge into dionysian matriarchal licentiousness at the incident of Baal Peor. It was not until Joshua at Gilgal when the reproach of Egypt would finally be rolled back. They celebrated their victory over the “reproach of Egypt” with a mass circumcision. And this, I suspect, is what has come down to us via Greek mythology as the defeat of the Amazons by Bellerophon.

 

For more articles by John R. Salverda on the Hebraic Connections of Greek Mythology, see:

“Helleno-Yishurin. The Hebrew Origin of Greek Legends”

Moses as Hermes

Published September 10, 2013 by amaic

Hermes

Salverda said…

It is apparent that the Greeks Knew Moses as Hermes (and perhaps Perseus, Mopsus, and Musaeus, among others) See an article that I wrote at;

http://jrs.bravehost.com/MosesHermesandIO.html

-John R. Salverda

And:

Moses, Hermes, and Io

by John R. Salverda

Background:

John R. Salverda shows how certain aspects of Greek Mythology owed their inspiration to Hebrew prototypes. This is of value in itself for we may sometimes glean hints of historical realities from these stories. The heroine Io for instance (as shown below) was identified by the Greeks themselves of a later age with the People of Phoenicia and with the Jews. The wanderings of Io may in fact refer to the peregrinations of the Lost Ten Tribes whose identify was transposed by the Greeks to the People of Judah and Phoenicia since these were the closest thing still in the neighborhood to what the Ten Tribes had once been.

The most ancient of all the Greek city-states that we have any history from is that of the city of Argos and its surrounding state called Argolis. The Greek city of Mycenae, after which the Mycenaean civilization itself was named, is considered to be but an offshoot from the city-state of Argolis, these preceded the Ionians of Athens, the Boeotians, the Corinthians, and the Dorians of Sparta, by several generations. Accordingly the myths about the founding of Argos represent the oldest of all Greek mythology. The founder and first king of Argos was called Inachus, and the first narrative myth with any kind of storyline from the founding of Argos, involved his daughter Io. This myth was often referred to as the story of Hermes ‘Argiophontes,’ so called after the hero of the tale, Hermes the ‘Argus killer.’

Now, Io was identified with Isis among the Egyptians and the Syrian city of Antioch, formerly called Iopolis, had claimed to be her burial place, while Hermes, was identified with the Egyptian Thoth, the Babylonian Nebo, had a planet (Mercury) and a day of the week (Wednesday) named after him. It is a severe stretch of the imagination to believe that international characters such as Io and Hermes are the invention of the aboriginal pre-civilized Greeks without any outside influence, and became incorporated, fully formed by them, into the foundation myths of their first city-state Argolis. Therefore you must realize that this, earliest of civilizations known to the ancient Greeks, did not originate in Greece itself but obviously came as a colony from elsewhere, bringing with them a developed mythology, to settle there in Argolis. But from where?

It was the opinion of some of the ancient historians that the Argolian royal family had come up out of the land of Egypt. Perhaps these Argolian colonists from Egypt knew about the story of Moses, this would certainly go a long way toward explaining why Hermes is so much like Moses. Moses, like Hermes, was the messenger of God, and both were sent by God to free, each their own, chosen ones from their respective captivities. As the ‘Psychopompus’ Hermes is divinely commissioned as ‘leader of the souls’ to the promised land, an attribute that is easily derived from the job of Moses. Furthermore Hermes is famed as the god of travelers just as Moses is the leader of those who wandered. According to the Scriptures, Moses and his followers had a lot of trouble with poisonous serpents, people were sick and dying of snakebite, and so God had bestowed upon Moses a copper serpent that was to be attached to a stick and used for curative purposes, while the mythical Greek character Hermes carried a serpent stick called the ‘Caduceus’ which was also divinely bestowed upon him and became the worldwide symbol of the medical profession. Some will argue that although the Caduceus did eventually become the symbol of the medical profession, to Hermes himself it was merely the badge of his office as the messenger of god, but of course, it is also true that Moses had another ‘serpent stick’ which he carried on his missions to bring God’s messages to the Pharaoh. We are told by Jewish sources such as the writer Eupolemus, who wrote about 150 BC, that the alphabet was invented by Moses, while according to Greek sources the same alphabet was invented by Hermes. The Egyptian Hermes, whom they called ‘Thoth,’ is credited with inventing hieroglyphic writing, while the Babylonian Hermes, whom they called ‘Nebo,’ is credited with inventing cuneiform writing. Nebo, a word that means, the ‘Prophet,’ was a common nickname for Moses, and when Moses died he was buried upon Mount Pisgah which is also called, no doubt in memory of Moses, Mount Nebo. Needless to say Moses was a prolific writer of sacred texts, in this regard Hermes was apparently no slouch either. So-called Hermetic books dealing with the religion of Egypt were mentioned by Clement of Alexandria, Tertullian, Porphyry, and Jamblichus. Clement even says that the books of Hermes were carried by the Egyptians in religious processions, one wonders indeed if they were kept in an ark like the law of Moses during the religious processions of the Israelites. However well known these Hermetic writings were in ancient times, it wasn’t until the middle of the 15th century that some of these previously lost Hermetic texts had supposedly been found in the libraries of the Byzantine Empire. Suspect though they are, these books are accredited to the semi-mythical figure named Hermes Trismegistus (thrice greatest) whom the Gnostics insist, while not being Moses himself, was a contemporary of his.

The preceding has been a list of several obvious parallels between Moses and Hermes, however there are quite a few similarities that are not so obvious but become so with only a bit of explanation, for instance; An ever present characteristic of any image of Hermes is his petasos, that cap which featured a wide circular brim. The fact that this petasos looks, even to the casual observer, remarkably like the halo of a Christian saint, may be a clue to its origin. For the corona of Moses, which is Scripturally attested to at Exodus 34:30, (And when Aaron and all the children of Israel saw Moses, behold, the skin of his face shone; and they were afraid to come near him.) probably was represented pictorially as a circle around his head and therefore it could have served as the origin of the petasos of Hermes. Hermes also had another form of headgear that was intended to hide him, it was known as the cap of darkness, or the helmet of invisibility, we know this because, according to Hyginus from his ‘Astronomica,’ (2.12) he once loaned it to Perseus, ‘Perseus … received from Hermes, … petasos, and, in addition, a helmet which kept its wearer from being seen … the helmet of Hades (the Unseen One), …’ Moses also had a headdress that he wore for the purpose of hiding, for his corona was frightening to people so he used a veil to conceal it, as explained in the book of Exodus at 34:33, (And until Moses had finished speaking with them, he put a veil over his face.) Hermes is often depicted as wearing the winged sandals, but the Greeks would certainly know enough not to take this literally, even as Moses was sent to deliver the Israelites upon eagles wings as at Exodus 19:4, (You have seen what I did unto the Egyptians, and how I bare you on eagles’ wings, and brought you unto myself.) so the Greeks would understand that traveling upon wings was merely symbolic and meant nothing more than going swiftly. Among the Greeks, Hermes was considered to be the inventor of casting lots as a method of divination, but Moses also instructed the Hebrews, at a very early date, in the use of lots to divine the will of God. The iconoclastic Moses taught that no images should be made, accordingly there is some evidence that Hermes too was at first an iconoclast. The name of Hermes originated in the Greek word ‘herma’ meaning a ‘stone heap.’ Probably from the custom of erecting a ‘herm’ consisting of an upright stone surrounded at its base by a heap of smaller stones. These unpretentious monuments were often used as landmarks for travelers or to mark territorial boundaries. A mythical origin for these stone heaps may also be surmised, for to quote from the ‘Etymologicum Magnum,’ ‘When Hermes killed Argos, he was brought to trial by the gods. They acquitted him, and in doing so each threw his voting-pebble at his feet. Thus a heap of stones grew up around him.’ The point here being that, the many more recent images of Hermes result from apostasies of his earliest teachings, and that the original icon of Hermes, namely, the modest stone heap, was indeed one that would have been acceptable to even Israel himself. Genesis 31:45-46 (And Jacob took a stone, and set it up for a pillar. And Jacob said unto his brethren, Gather stones; and they took stones, and made an heap.) Moses taught that one out of every seven days, the Sabbath, was to be revered as holy, while Hermes also took one day out of the seven, it was Wednesday, and it was named after him.

I was not the first one to identify Moses with Hermes, in fact this was noticed thousands of years ago, at least as early as the second (some think that he could possibly have lived in the third) century BC by the Egyptian (some think that he may possibly have been Jewish) priest Artapanus. Eusebius (ix. 27) quoted from a lost book that was written by Artapanus and was called ‘Concerning the Jews’ it said of Moses ‘he was beloved by the Egyptians, who called him Hermes.’ The Greeks themselves seem to corroborate Artapanus by admitting that the Ibis headed Egyptian god Thoth was just another version of their god Hermes. The Greeks even tell a story of how Hermes had come up out of the land of Egypt, where he once had lived disguised as an Ibis. Like it is in the Hebrew Scriptures, the followers of Moses in the story told by Artapanus, were plagued by poisonous serpents, however the Moses of Artapanus (instead of the copper serpent,) employed the Ibis to attack the snakes. This was the reason, Artapanus says, for which Moses/Hermes revered the Ibis so.

There are quite a few ancient historians who have written chronologies representing Moses as living at the same time as Inachus, the father of Io. The native Egyptian priest and historian, Ptolemy of Mendes as quoted by Africanus tells us; ‘in the time of Apis son of Phoroneus (Phoroneus was the son of Inachus, and the brother of Io) a part of the Egyptian army was expelled (or simply took their ‘leave’ from the Greek word ‘exepesen’ ) from Egypt, who took up their abode not far from Arabia in the part of Syria called Palestine,’ And Apion, in his book ‘Against the Jews,’ and in his ‘Histories’ Book four, says that, ‘in the time of Inachus king of Argos, … the Jews revolted, with Moses as their leader.’ And Clement (44) quotes Ctesias as saying. ‘the movement of Moses out of Egypt took place in the time … of Inachus king of Argos.’

If Hermes was Moses, as per Artapanus, and Moses was a younger contemporary to Inachus, the father of Io, as per the ancient chronologists here cited, then it is very conceivable that the Hermes in the story of Io’s wanderings, is a mythic Greek version of Moses in the Hebrew story about the wandering Jews.

We are fortunate to have preserved for us the writings of Aeschylus, who wrote his ‘Prometheus bound,’ about the year 470 BC. for in this work, the story of Io is linked to the story of Prometheus. The story of Io was, almost certainly an Egyptian and/or Phoenician tale which was brought to Greece by the likes of the Danaus the Egyptian, and by Cadmus the Phoenician, who were both descendants of Io. However, the story of Prometheus, with his father Iapetus, (the eponym of Cappadocia, from a Persian version of the name that was similar to the Latin form, ‘Gepetto,’) and the Caucasus, would direct us toward the Southeastern end of the Black Sea. Although these two myths seem to come from diverse and distant locations, Aeschylus has connected them as parts of the same story, therefore he must have known of, or at least suspected, that this connection existed, otherwise his readers would not accept it as logical. As Aeschylus relates to us, it was soon after Prometheus was sentenced and fixed to his lofty place of suffering, that Io, in the course of her wanderings, approached his mountain and talked with him. Keeping in mind what we know about the story of the Exodus, the story of how Io got to this place, can tell us much about the figure whom the Greeks called Prometheus.

The earthly wife of god was in bondage, so god sent his serpent stick carrying messenger, on eagle’s wings, to lead her out of her captivity. The messenger of god smote the head of her captor and delivered the Earthly wife of god. Did he lead her directly home’ No, this is when she went on her famous wanderings, known to the Greeks as, the wanderings of Io. There was a mystifying cloud cover, a gadfly plague, and a miraculous water crossing. She gave birth to the “Egyptian” calf god, “Epaphus.” (Apis) But, most telling of all, she approached the special mountain where the creator of mankind was bound, and talked to him. Prometheus told Io that she could expect the savior to be born to her, as one of her descendants, thirteen generations hence. After all this she finally returned to her homeland, Phoronea.

Now, if this story sounds intriguingly familiar it should, for the “myth” of Io’s deliverance, and the story of the Exodus share an origin. Let us prove this theory by examining the eleven motifs of the myth, as I have laid them out, point by point: First of all is the statement; ‘The earthly wife of god was in bondage’ That the nation of Israel itself was symbolically pictured as God’s wife is evident from several passages of the Scriptures, notably at Isaiah 54:5 and Hosea 2:1-23 but especially at Jeremiah 31:32, where God’s wife is specifically said to have been delivered up out of Egypt; ‘… I took … them out of the land of Egypt; … I was an husband unto them, …’ In accordance with the Greek myth of Io, the chief Greek god Zeus, (the Roman Jove, as Jehovah’), had two wives, one was his heavenly wife Hera and the other was his Earthly one Io. He had given Io to Hera who placed her in bondage, that’s right, Io was the bondwoman (or bondmaid) of Hera. (Genesis 16:6 But Abram said unto Sarai, Behold, your maid is in your hand; do to her as it pleases you. And when Sarai dealt harshly with her, she fled from her face.) Thus Hera and Io were to Zeus, as Sarah and Hagar were to Abraham, the wife and her bondmaid, and consequently in accordance with Galatians 4:22-26, also just as God’s Earthly wife and God’s Heavenly wife were to Him. (For it is written, that Abraham had two sons, the one by a bondmaid, the other by a freewoman. … Which things are an allegory: for these are the two covenants; the one from the mount Sinai, which brings forth children to bondage, which is Hagar. For this Hagar is mount Sinai in Arabia, and answers to Jerusalem which now is, and is in bondage with her children. But Jerusalem which is above is free, which is the mother of us all.) Here we can see that, as the book of Galatians confirms, the Earthly wife of God was indeed pictured as being in bondage, just as the Greek story of Io portrays. …In light of the foregoing it seems conceivable that the very name ‘Io,’ is a mere transliteration of the word ‘Jew,’ and its use in the Greek myth, is one of the earliest known employments of this term to denote a Hebrew. The Greeks themselves often referred to the inhabitants of Canaan (also known as Israel) as the descendants of Io, an example of one such early reference is in Bacchylides, who lived at the beginning of the fifth century BC, and wrote an ode about Io, so saying that, “she gave to light, man’s greatest line, the roots of Cadmus, Agenor’s son, …” thereby of course, referring to the Phoenicians, or rather, as I hope the reader will come to understand by the fact that they both occupied the same land of Canaan, the Hebrews. (Bacchylides, 19.)

The second statement is; ‘so god sent his serpent stick carrying messenger, on eagle’s wings, to lead her out of her captivity.’ Hermes, as we have said previously, parallels Moses, their two serpent sticks, the eagle’s wings, and their particular commissions as divine messengers, have all been covered previously, thus it would be redundant to reexamine these apparently identical characters, however let us here consider the underlying parallel plot, of their respective rescue missions. In the myth of Io, it was Zeus himself who, by deceiving her captor, was responsible for the fact that Io was gripped in bondage. He had lied to Hera in allowing her to keep Io captive. He regretted this and it was his will that she should be freed from her captivity, but he did not personally demand it, instead he appointed an intermediary, Hermes, to deliver her. Neither Argus, the champion of Hera and guard of Io, nor Hera herself, knew the true will of god in this matter. In other words, Zeus had acted to free Io from a captivity which he himself was also responsible for orchestrating. God, in the Scriptural story of the Exodus, was also on both sides of the issue, for on the one hand, He kept, as He put it, ‘hardening the heart’ of the Pharaoh, thereby claiming responsibility for the fact that the Jews were remaining in bondage, while on the other hand, He heard the cries of His poor Earthly wife and, having pity on her in her captivity, it was His will that she should be freed. God did not openly appear to Pharaoh and command him to soften his heart and release the Jews, which He could no doubt have done, as easily as He had caused the Pharaoh to harden it, instead he appointed an intermediary, Moses, to deliver her. One last point on this topic is the interesting detail of the divine excuse. Whether in the Scriptural or the mythological version of the story, the duplicity of God/god is so obvious that the writer finds the need to offer a reason to rationalize it. The Greeks explain that the deceit of Zeus in this regard, demonstrates that it is perfectly permissible to violate a lovers vow, and that it would be completely forgiven by the gods, if one were to do so. While the Scriptural excuse runs thusly; Exodus 10:1-2 And Yahweh said to Moses, Go to Pharaoh: for I have hardened his heart, and the heart of his servants, that I might show these my signs before him: And that you might tell in the ears of your son, and of your son’s son, what things I have wrought in Egypt, and my signs which I have done among them; that you may know how that I am Yahweh.

Third we have; ‘The messenger of god smote the head of her captor and delivered the Earthly wife of god.’ Argus, surnamed, ‘Panoptes,’ the ‘all-seeing,’ or ‘many-eyed,’ was set as Io’s keeper. The Egyptians were especially fond of representing their gods as an eye, Horus was considered to be the eye of Ra, so was Hathor Ra’s eye, Ra himself was an eye, and even Osiris was an eye, To quote Plutarch; ‘Thus, their great king and lord Osiris is represented by the hieroglyphics for an eye and a scepter, the name itself signifying “many-eyed,” as we are told by some who would derive it from the words os, “many,” and iri, an “eye,” which have this meaning in the Egyptian language.’ If the Greeks did trace the origin of the name Osiris to the term ‘many-eyed’ then Argus Panoptes is a likely figurative version of the famous Egyptian god. After all, to the Egyptians, their Pharaoh represented Osiris, and this must have been especially true of a Pharaoh who had been killed. On the other hand I suspect a more esoteric meaning behind the character of Argus, for Osiris symbolizes more than just the Pharaoh of Egypt he was a symbol of Egypt’s entire religious system. The many eyes mean the many gods, and the famous killing of Argus by Hermes is a symbolic reference to the death of Polytheism and the famous institution of monotheism by Moses. (This will become more evident after a comparison of this story to the story of Perseus who also performs a famous beheading.) As if to bolster this argument, more than one Biblical commentary has represented the ten plagues, culminating with the death of the Pharaoh at the Red Sea, as each targeting, one after another, the different false gods of Egypt, in order to show their combined ineffectiveness against the one true God of Moses.

As the forth item we have; ‘Did he lead her directly home’ No, this is when she went on her famous wanderings, known to the Greeks as, the wanderings of Io.’ While it is true that the most common tale has Io wandering all over the world, at the end of this trek, she had another more familiar journey. We learn from Robert Graves, ‘The Greek Myths,’ (56) that there was a strong tradition claiming that the wanderings of Io ended at Mount Silpium in Syria where she was said to have died of grief. This tradition was backed up by the fact that a city, once called Iopolis but later and better known as Antioch, was founded in her honor, and there was a ceremony held there that the residents performed annually in her memory. The following we learn from Apollodorus; Io gave birth to Epaphus in Egypt, but the Curetes kidnapped him, and so Io set out to search for the child. She roamed all over Syria, and found Epaphus, the Queen of Byblos was nursing him. The Egyptians called Io by the name of Isis. You can verify it by reading his work, ‘Library and Epitome’ (2.1.3) Many mythic women, have wandering as one of their attributes, unfortunately, the scope of this work, does not include tracing the origins of all myths to the stories of the Hebrews, only the Greek ones. If you accept the identification of Io with Isis as given by Apollodorus then, Plutarch confirms the route of her wanderings, that is from Egypt to the land of Canaan (Byblos) in his story of Isis. The Jews after making the calf-god, like Io after the birth of Epaphus, were famous for wandering from Egypt to Canaan. But also like Io, the Jews went through an extensive period of sojourning prior to the calf-god incident, Therefore the Greek myth of Io with her more extensive wanderings could be referring to a story of the Jews that covers the whole period of time from Abraham down through the Exodus. A Scriptural verse that actually talks about this time period can be found at Genesis 15:13 ‘… your seed shall be a stranger in a land that is not theirs, … four hundred years.’ Furthermore the phrase ‘your seed’ here cited could be referring to more than Abraham’s descendants through Sarah, for let us not forget that Hagar, who was a wife’s bondmaid like Io, began her period of wandering already in the days of Abraham.

Now, we know that Israel wasn’t in Egypt for 430 years, but, on the other hand they were said to have been first in Mesopotamia, then in Canaan, and then in Egypt, before returning to Canaan, for about that length of time. And so, after a closer examination, it does seem possible that the Greek version of Io’s wanderings could have originated, like the rest of her story, from the same source as the Hebrew version of a story about the wandering Jews. Incidentally, since this story was brought, it would seem, by the Jews from Canaan to Argolis, we can adduce this migration as the final leg of their wanderings.

The fifth point is; ‘There was a mystifying cloud cover,’ In each case the God/god raised up a cloud in order to hide his Earthly wife from her subjugator. See Exodus 14:19 where it says; ‘And the pillar of the cloud went from before their face, and stood behind them: And it came between the camp of the Egyptians and the camp of Israel; and it was a cloud and darkness to them, but it gave light by night to these: so that the one came not near the other all the night.’ In the Greek myth Zeus also raises up a mystifying bank of clouds to hide his Earthly wife Io from her subjugator Hera.

Featured sixth is; ‘a gadfly plague,’ While at first glance this would seem to make an intriguing match, I’m afraid that I can’t really defend this identification. Io was indeed ‘plagued’ by a gadfly, but the word which is often translated from the Greek and Latin originals is a verb, and could just as easily have been rendered as ‘harassed,’ ‘attacked’ or ‘stung.’ The scriptural term is a noun and could perhaps be more properly interpreted by the word ‘blow,’ or ‘strike.’ Even the term, ‘gadfly’ is in doubt, a few, by no means all, Scriptural translations, such as, the New World, the Jerusalem Bible, and the Emphasized Bible, have rendered the word representing the agent of the fourth plague as ‘gadfly,’ however, we are more certain that Io’s pest was a gadfly than we are that this Biblical ‘swarm’ was of gadflies. Never-the-less, I did feel obligated to include this topic anyway, for the sake of those who are familiar with both the Hebrew story and the Greek myth, for these would naturally wonder about it. After all, the first two things that come to mind when you hear the phrase, ‘gadfly plague,’ would be, of course, first the Exodus and then the myth of Io. Let the reader dismiss this motif as he sees fit, you can take it or leave it.

As motif number seven we have; ‘and a miraculous water crossing.’ Having identified the wandering Io, with the wandering Jew, the obvious intent here is to equate the miraculous Scriptural Red Sea crossing, with the also miraculous water crossing of the Bosphorus, by the divine heifer in the Greek myth. Although the name “Bosphorus” is usually reserved as the title for the straits between the Black Sea and the Sea of Marmara, there are other narrow water crossings between land masses, that are also called by that name. Apollodorus tells us in his, ‘Library and Epitome’ (2.1.3) “Io … crossed what was then called the Thracian Straits but is now called after her the Bosphorus. (Here, Apollodorus is not referring to the usual Bosphorus, but to the Cimmerian Straits of Phosphorus, a tongue of water that leads from the Black Sea northward into the Sea of Azov now-a-days called the Kerch Strait. It separates the Crimean Peninsula from the Kuban region in the west.) And having gone away to Scythia and the Cimmerian land she wandered over great tracts of land and swam wide stretches of sea both in Europe and Asia until at last she came to Egypt.” There was also what was called the Indian Bosphorus that was, amazingly enough, across the Red Sea, at Bab-El-Mandeb, so says Robert Graves in his book, ‘The Greek Myths,’ (56) Now, the fact that there are these other water crossings that are also called Bosphorus is very suspicious, especially when you suppose that the origin of this word comes from the Greek myth. Could the mere fairy tale of Io swimming across the straits of Bosphorus have been so influential as to name straits all over Europe and Asia’ Wasn’t there another water crossing, that was of much greater import, and was a more likely origin to these multiple uses of the term Bosphorus’ As we have intimated earlier, the term Bosphorus is the Thracian form of Phosphoros (‘Prometheus Bound & the Fragments of Prometheus Loosed’ by N. Wecklein) meaning, “Light bearing.” Probably the word “Bosphorus,” originated with the word “phosphorus.” And this in turn probably came from the word “Eosphoros” (related to other similar terms such as “Hesperus” and “Heosphoros”) or “dawn bearing.” For “Io,” is probably a form of the Greek “Eos,” which means the “dawn” and was, as we have seen, just another name for “Zion,” (could this be the ultimate origin of the English word “dawn'” We also have a goddess called “Morgana” as “morning.”)

The eighth part of the myth is; ‘She gave birth to the “Egyptian” calf god, “Epaphus.” (Apis)’ Showing that Epaphus, the son of Io, was meant by the Greeks to represent the Egyptian calf-god Apis is elementary, the Greeks themselves, as early as Herodotus about 450 BC, (Now Apis is the god whom the Greeks call Epaphus. from ‘Histories’ Chapter 3) make it plain that this is so. Furthermore, equating the golden calf, which was built and worshipped by the Hebrews during their Exodus, with the Egyptian god Apis, is also largely done for me already, by the majority of Scriptural commentaries. Therefore logic propels this statement; If the Greek Epaphus was the Egyptian Apis, and the Egyptian Apis was the Hebrew golden calf, then it logically follows that the Greek Epaphus was the Hebrew golden calf. Of course it may be argued that the Jews did not give birth to the golden calf, however, if we accept that Io was the Jews and that she gave birth to Epaphus just before she wandered from Egypt to Canaan, and we are able to equate that, with the Jews building their golden calf just before they wandered to Canaan, then a strong case can be made that the ‘building’ of the golden calf refers to the ‘birthing’ of Epaphus.

ninth; ‘But, most telling of all, she approached the special mountain where the creator of mankind was bound, and talked to him.’ Associating Io with the Jews, leads automatically to the identification between the two mountains that are featured in each their own two stories. The identical characters identically wandered, the Jew to Mount Sinai, and Io to Mount Caucasia, this would be enough to link the two mountains, but the Greeks offer such details about Io’s special mountain as to make it’s correlation obvious. Not only was there a special mountain, but the creator of mankind was ‘bound’ to it. Now, please don’t let the common knee-jerk reaction, charging blasphemy, and decrying the dissimilarities between the Promethean creation and that of God in the book of Genesis, blind your eyes to the following comparison, no doubt the reader is sufficiently inured by now. Prometheus, like the Scriptural Creator, created Mankind out of clay. Also included in the story of Prometheus, is the tale of how the first woman, therein called Pandora, introduced evil into the world because she could not do as she was told. Prometheus not only gave a clear warning that if heeded would have prevented this feminine mistake, his story also included a Greek version of the ‘Messianic’ prophecy. Just like the Edenic promise concerning the Seed of the enigmatic woman, so was the identity of she who would one day give birth to the child, who was destined to overthrow Zeus, equally mysterious. But where, you may ask, is the Garden of Eden in the story of Prometheus’ The answer is, that the same people who told the story of Prometheus did have the story of that ancient garden, for Prometheus was the brother of none other than Atlas, the ancient gardener himself. Practically every motif from the Scriptural story of creation, can be found within the Greek myth about the family of Prometheus and Atlas. And why not’ For they were the sons of Iapetus, the only character in all of Greek mythology whom, Biblical scholars are willing to admit, may have had a Scriptural origin, Japheth the son of Noah and the progenitor of the Caucasians.

The tenth particular point to be made in the myth of Io as I have laid it out is; ‘Prometheus told Io that she could expect the savior to be born to her, as one of her descendants, thirteen generations hence.’ This point, overlooked by many, is exceptionally strong evidence for equating the Greek and Hebrew traditions. A quote from ‘Prometheus bound,’ a play by Aeschylus, who wrote as early as 500 BC, runs thus; ‘PROMETHEUS: She (a future wife of Zeus) will bear to him a child, And he shall be in might more excellent Than his progenitor. IO: And he will find No way to fend off this strong stroke of fate’ PROMETHEUS: None save my own self when these bonds are loosed. IO: And who shall loose them if Zeus wills not’ PROMETHEUS: Of your own seed. IO: How says you’ Shall a child of mine release thee’ PROMETHEUS: Son of yours, but son the thirteenth generation shall beget. IO: A prophecy oracularly dark.’ Is it not amazing how exactly, down to the smallest details of theology, that the Greek and Hebrew traditions match on this point’ With the advent of this ‘savior’ Prometheus would no longer be ‘bound’ to the mountain. How many stories do you know of where the creator of mankind will be released from his binding contract through the fulfillment of a prophecy predicting the future arrival of the son of god, and the seed of a woman’ (Well, the story of Atlas is also remarkably similar but, as I hope the reader will come to realize, the two stories were intricately related.) The entire genealogy of the Greek savior, all thirteen generations are known to this day! (as if it were the thirteen generations from Abraham to David!) Can any other “myths” claim to pay such attention to the details of lineage? Check it out, Heracles was the son of, Amphitryon the son of, Alcaeus the son of, Perseus the son of, Danae the daughter of, Acrisius the son of, Abas the son of, Hypermnestra the daughter of, Danaus the son of, Belus the son of, Libya the daughter of, Epaphus the son of, Io the daughter of Inachus. Why such meticulous genealogical record keeping, for these fairy tales’ The obvious answer is, that they weren’t fairy tales at first, they only became considered as such by later generations after we had forgotten the true meanings of the symbolisms. Once upon a time they were taken as seriously as Scripture.

Last, but not least, is the eleventh assertion which is as follows; ‘After all this she finally returned to her homeland, Phoronea.’ By now it will have become obvious to the reader, that none of these events actually took place in Greece itself, the wandering was from Egypt to Canaan, the mountain was Sinai, and the miraculous water crossing turns out to have been at the Red Sea, so it should come as no surprise to find that Phoronea was not Argos in the Greek Argolis either. Phoronea was Hebron, the giant who was known to the Greeks as Inachus, and the sons of Inachus, (called the Inachids, in the Greek myths) were the founding family of Phoronea, just as the giant who was known to the Hebrews as Anak, and the sons of Anak, (called the Anakim, in the Bible) were the founding family of Hebron. Thus the Greek giant Inachus is to be identified with the Hebrew giant Anak. (in light of the foregoing, the parents of Inachus, Tethys and Okeanus, represent plausibly, Heth and Canaan.) Inachus had at least two children, a boy, Phoroneus, whom Phoronea was named after, and the girl, Io. The name Phoroneus must be a shibboleth of the name Ephron, whom I assume Hebron to be named after. A further clue for this identification lays in the fact that Phoroneus was famous, in Greek myths for trying to get nomadic peoples to settle down and live in towns, he was a well known ‘civilizer.’ The biblical Ephron tried the same thing with the nomadic Abraham. When the Hebrew patriarch came to Ephron, (the Hittite) at Hebron, looking for a family grave site, all he wanted was a cave, but Ephron made Abraham buy an entire section of the city (Genesis, Chapter 23). This sharing of ownership in a city, gave Abraham’s family a kind of royal status there, but no doubt, made them responsible for taxation as well. While Ephron is said to have lived among the children of Heth, the Anakim are not called Hittites in the Bible, but this is a logical assumption. The Bible does say that the Israelites were largely of Hittite extraction, which leads us back to the sister of Phoroneus, Io. The story of Io concerns the founding families of Phoronea. The Greek myths say, that “Phoronea” was the name of the place before it was changed, (at some unspecified date,) to Argos.

In propagating a new religion it often becomes necessary to denigrate the old existing one. In this way the gods and heroes of the old tradition often become the demons and villains of the new one. It is apparent that this is what occurred in ancient Argolis. The Anakim, who were the original immigrants to Argos from Hebron, brought with them the worship of Hera, the Queen of Heaven. However, the newer arrivals, those who told the story of Io, apparently did not share so fervently in that worship. To them, Hera and her champion Argus, were the persecutors of Io. They preferred to worship a male deity and his messenger Hermes. There are tantalizing mythological hints about the nature of the previous religion where the Queen of Heaven was supreme. She had endowed Argus with great strength and sent him to destroy a terrible enemy of mankind, the monstrous Echidna. We are also told how previously, before Zeus had fallen in love with her and Hera began treating her so badly, Io had served as a priestess of Hera’s. Now, we know from the Hebrew scriptures, that the new religion which was propagated by Moses, also had to overcome the previously existing “pagan” worship of the Queen of Heaven, who is Biblically referred to as “Ashtaroth.” We also know From the book of Jeremiah Chapter 44 Verses 17 through 25, that this form of worship was a very popular alternative to the Hebrew religion. Back in the days of the Canaanite conquest, when Caleb was routing the Anakim out of Hebron, the Israelite leader Joshua, put it to the people to choose which religion they would honor. (Joshua 24:15-16, And if it seem evil unto you to serve Yahweh, choose you this day whom ye will serve; whether the gods which your fathers served that were on the other side of the flood, or the gods of the Amorites, in whose land ye dwell: but as for me and my house, we will serve Yahweh. And the people answered and said, God forbid that we should forsake Yahweh, to serve other gods.) Of course, the people were only giving Joshua lip service, for we further read at Judges 2:13, And they forsook Yahweh, and served Baal and Ashtaroth. This ultimatum to the people to choose between these two forms of worship cannot but helped to remind us of the ancient Greek myth about the founding of Argos. According to the myth, there was a contest between Hera and Poseidon, (Apsu+Adon, “lord of the abyss” he was a very jealous god, who often contested against the local, deity, a goddess usually, demanding the exclusive devotion of its inhabitants. The Athenians also, had to vote for either Athena or Poseidon, who wouldn’t share his adoration. He was the “Earth shaker,” the flood, and the drought, were his instruments. But, for all his Yahweh like attributes, he was very Dagon like too. This mixture of attributes was the result of a mixture between his main worshippers, the Danites and their closely related neighbors, the Philistines.) over whom should be worshipped by the People of Phoronea, it was either Inachus or, as some sources have it, Phoroneus who chose the Queen of Heaven, and thus the place was named for her son. Consequently, the wrathful Poseidon duly punished the people, with drought and flood, for deciding against his worship. The summary of my theory is, that Argolis in Greece was founded by the Anakim from Hebron, who were expelled by Caleb, in the days of Joshua. The People of Argolis brought the stories of Hebron with them as they went to its colony in Greece, they called this colony “Argos,” after the son of Hera, Argus Panoptes. Much of the stories about the city, especially while it was still called Phoronea, actually took place not in Greece but back in Hebron, and the Argolians simply retained those memories as their founding myths. Subsequent waves of Danite/Philistines, also from the land of Canaan, later arrived in Argos, and adjusted the Argolian mythology a bit to better suit their religious beliefs. we shall soon learn more about this Danite wave of immigration, which is also the subject of Greek mythology and known to them as the arrival of Danaus. Before I go on however, to outline the Hebrew origins of the Greek myth about Danaus, I should like to add just a bit more about the Greek mythological character whom we know as Prometheus.

The importance of the Promethean role in classical mythology is often overlooked, but it is central to his theme, that it was he, after all, who with his sage and counsel, was responsible for Zeus’ gaining the kingdom of heaven from Kronos. During the Gigantomachy, (This is the Greek name for the “war of the giants,”) it is said that Prometheus, at first offered to help the Giants, but his help was little appreciated, and he turned to help his, even less appreciative cousin, Zeus and his cohorts the Olympian gods. It was Prometheus who insisted that Zeus enlist the aide of the previously banished masons of antiquity, the cannibalistic, Cyclopes, a move which sealed the victory for the gods. Prometheus surpassed all the gods in cunning and guile, he was very capable of ridiculing them, which he sometimes did. Once when Mankind found themselves in a dispute with the gods over which part of an animal sacrifice should be kept by men, and which should be offered to the gods. It was decided that Prometheus, would be the mediator between gods and man, and settle this question of sacrifice once and for all. He did so by a fraud intended to favor mankind; he divided a sacrificial bull into two halves, and wrapped the choice, edible parts, in skin and guts, but the bones he covered with a convincing amount of fat. He then had Zeus choose one of the piles. The king chose the fat, as that looked best on the surface, and so was duped. That was the insult which so outraged Zeus that he took fire, and all it’s uses away from mankind and determined to wipe out the race. Prometheus would not allow this to happen, so he sneaked into heaven and stole a portion of fire from the lightning bolt of Zeus, and he carried it, hidden in a fennel stalk, back down to mankind. He then cautioned mankind to beware of Zeus, his rule, and all his ways. Because of this indignation, Zeus was now fully enraged at the champion of mankind. He ordered Hephaestos, (some say Hermes) to chain Prometheus to mount Caucasus, to hang, exposed to the elements, where a vulture was commissioned to gnaw at his liver daily, (the liver grew back each eve,) through a wound in his side.