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Piankhi same as Bible’s Tirhakah?

Published September 21, 2018 by amaic
Image result for piankhi

 

by

Damien F. Mackey

 

 

Now Sennacherib received a report that Tirhakah, the king of Cush,

was marching out to fight against him”.

 

2 Kings 19:9

 

 

As part of my effort to reform the later Egyptian dynastic history in my postgraduate thesis:

 

A Revised History of the Era of King Hezekiah

 

https://www.academia.edu/37440252/A_Revised_History_of_the_Era_of_King_Hezekiah

 

I had identified the long-reigning 25th (Kushite) dynasty pharaoh, Piankhi (or Piye) (c. 744-714 BC, conventional dating) with the biblical Tirhakah (or Taharko) (hopelessly mis-dated to c. 690-664 BC, conventional dating).

There is a scarab that seems to attest to this identification directly:

 

 

It is discussed in a most interesting article entitled by R. Clover, entitled “The Sabbath and Jubilee Cycle”, section Tirhakah Piankhi (commencing on p. 118):

http://www.newbookinc.com/456-455BC%20AS%20SABATH%20YEAR-RETURN%20TO%20JUDEA.pdf

 

I wrote about this on p. 384 of my thesis (Volume One):

 

Now Piye [Piankhi], conventionally considered to have been the first major 25th dynasty pharaoh, and whose beginning of reign (revised) must have been very close to 730 BC (given that he reigned for 31 years), and whose 21st year (Stele) fell during the reign of Tefnakht – had also adopted the name of Usermaatre. Thus Grimal: … “[Piankhy] identified himself with the two great rulers who were most represented in the Nubian monuments, Tuthmosis III and Ramesses II, and adopted each of their coronation names: Menkheperre and Usermaatra respectively”. In other words, Piye was an eclectic in regard to early Egyptian history; and this fact may provide us with a certain opportunity for manoeuvring, alter ego wise.

Fortunately we do not need to guess who Piye was, because there is a scarab that tells us

precisely that Snefer-Ra Piankhi was Tirhakah, much to the puzzlement of Petrie. …. It reads:

 

“King of Upper and Lower Egypt, Tirhakah, Son of Ra, Piankhi”.

 

 

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Hezekiah, Josiah, similarities

Published September 21, 2018 by amaic
Image result for king josiah]

by

 Damien F. Mackey

 

 

The reason why various commentators have been able to point to a host of comparisons and similarities between Hezekiah and Josiah is because, according to my biblico-historical revision at least, e.g.:

 

A Revised History of the Era of King Hezekiah

https://www.academia.edu/37440252/A_Revised_History_of_the_Era_of_King_Hezekiah

 

Hezekiah was Josiah.

 

My above-mentioned article, by the way, significantly revises – and raises out of a certain former obscurity – king Hezekiah of Judah as he is to be found in my earlier postgraduate thesis:

 

A Revised History of the Era of King Hezekiah of Judah and its Background

 

AMAIC_Final_Thesis_2009.pdf

 

 

The author of “The Passovers of Hezekiah and Josiah in Chronicles: Meals in the Persian Period”, for instance, who accepts the conventional view that Hezekiah and Josiah were two different kings – and who does not tend to believe in the historicity of Hezekiah’s Passover – has pointed to certain similarities: http://prophetess.lstc.edu/~rklein/Doc15/meals.pdf

 

….

The descriptions of the Passovers of Hezekiah and Josiah in Chronicles are centralized festivals, held in Jerusalem and linked in both cases to the feast of Unleavened Bread (2 Chr 30:13, 21 and 2 Chr 35:17), and linked to an additional second week of celebration in the case of Hezekiah (2 Chr 30:23). In 2 Chronicles 30 this two-week celebration is followed by various reform activities by all Israel in the territories of Judah, Benjamin, Ephraim and Manasseh. In Chronicles this festive celebration forms the climax of the reign of Josiah, followed only by his death at the hands of Necho. These two Unleavened Bread and Passover feasts enhance the reputation of two of the Chronicler’s favorite kings, Hezekiah and Josiah.

 

The meals in both cases are accompanied by a full array of the clergy from the Persian period [sic]. The addition of the Passover of Hezekiah and baroque expansion and development of the three-verse celebration of the Passover of Josiah may conform the story of this eighth and seventh century kings to the tradition of royal banquets associated with kings in the Persian period. Ahasuerus, for example, gave a 180-day banquet for all his officials, ministers, the army of Persia and Media and the nobles and governors of the province (Esth 1:2-4), only to be followed by a seven day banquet for everyone (1:5-8). Vashti held a simultaneous banquet for the women (1:9).16 Unlike the Persian banquets, the Passovers of Hezekiah and Josiah in Chronicles were not characterized by excessive drinking. In fact, alcohol is not mentioned at all. ….

[End of quote]

 

John Mayne investigates it more deeply in “Hezekiah and Josiah: Comparisons and Contrasts”: https://www.academia.edu/12836231/Hezekiah_and_Josiah_Comparisons_and_Contrasts

 

Abstract:

 

Hezekiah and Josiah were the joint authors of unparalleled and unprecedented religious reforms that found their purpose in Yahweh, and their presence in Jerusalem.  Through dissecting their methods and motivations, we can begin to uncover the full extent to which their reforming stratagem converged, diverged, or existed in parallel.  Factoring in the contribution of the Historian and Chronicler, the geopolitical situation, personal devotion to Yahweh, monarchical relationships with the prophetic conscience and each king’s lasting historical legacy, we can begin to also shed light on what role their transformative measures carried out on the macro scale of Israelite history. ….

[End of quote]

 

Previously I have written:

 

“There was no one like him [Hezekiah] among all the kings of Judah, either before him or after him.”  2 Kings 18:5 (NIV?) “Neither before nor after Josiah was there a king like him …”  2 Kings 23:25 (NIV?)

 

 

“The reigns of the goodly, reforming kings Hezekiah and Josiah are so alike – with quite an amazing collection of same-named officials – that I had actually once begun a series (but then scrapped it) in which I had attempted an identification of Hezekiah with Josiah”.

 

Since writing this I have stumbled (again) on The Domain of Man’s Chart 37, which shows up some striking comparisons between Hezekiah and Josiah (I do not necessarily endorse every single detail to be found in this chart): http://www.domainofman.com/book/chart-37.html

 

 

Comparison of Hezekiah and Josiah Narratives

 

 

Hezekiah Narrative
2 Chron. 29-32
2 Kings 18-20
Book of Isaiah
Josiah Narrative
2 Chron. 34-35
2 Kings 22-23
Book of Jeremiah
Hezekiah, “son” of Ahaz
mother:  Abijah daughter of Zechariah
Josiah, “son” of Amon
mother:  Jedidah daughter of Adaiah
25 years at ascension, reigned 29 years 8 years at ascension, reigned 31 years
“There was no one like him [Hezekiah] among all the kings of Judah, either before him or after him.”  2 Kings 18:5 (NIV?) “Neither before nor after Josiah was there a king like him …”  2 Kings 23:25 (NIV?)
Jerusalem to be spared destruction in his lifetime
2 Kings 19:1; 20:2-19; 2 Chron. 32:20,26
Jerusalem to be spared destruction in his lifetime
(2 Kings 22:14-20; 2 Chron. 34:22-28)
Revival of Laws of Moses
“according to what was written”
2 Chron. 30:5,16, 18; 31:2-7,15
Discovery of the Book of the Law (of Moses)
2 Kings 22:8-10; 2 Chron. 34:14-15
Passover Celebration Passover Celebration
“For since the days of Solomon son of David king of Israel there had been nothing like this in Jerusalem.”
2 Chron. 30:26
“Not since the days of the Judges (Samuel) who led Israel, nor throughout the days of the kings of Israel and the kings of Judah, had any such Passover been observed.”  2 Kings 23:22
Year not given
14th day of the second month
Year 18
14th day of the first month
17,000 sheep and goats, 1,000 bulls
(not including the sacrifices of the first seven days)  (1 Chron. 30:24)
30,000 sheep and goats, 3,000 cattle
Participating tribes:  Judah and Benjamin,
Manasseh, Ephraim,
Asher, Zebulun & Issachar
(2 Chron. 31:1)
Participating tribes: Judah and Benjamin,
Manasseh, Ephraim,
Simeon & Naphtali
(2 Chron. 34:9,32)
Temporary priests consecrated for service Employed “lay people” 2 Chron. 35:5
“. smashed the sacred stones and cut down the Asherah poles”  2 Kings 18:4; 2 Chron. 31:1 “. smashed the sacred stones and cut down the Asherah poles”  2 Kings 23:14
High places and altars torn down High places and altars torn down
“. broke into pieces the bronze snake” “. burned the chariots dedicated to the sun”
Name Comparisons
Hezekiah Narrative Josiah Narrative
Sennacherib oppresses Jerusalem Assyrian oppression omitted
Name of High Priest omitted Hilkiah, “High Priest”
Eliakim son of Hilkiah, palace administrator Eliakim “son” (?) of Josiah (future Jehoiakim)
Zechariah (descendant of Asaph)
Azariah, the priest (from family of Zadok)
Zechariah
Zechariah
(variant of Azariah)
Shaban/Shebna/Shebniah, scribe Shaphan, scribe
(son of Azaliah son of Meshullam)
Hashabiah/Hashabniah  (2 Chron. 35:9)
Jeshua
Isaiah son of Amoz, prophet
Joshua, “city governor”
Hoshaiah (Jer. 42:1; 43:2)
Asaiah, “king’s attendant”
Ma’aseiah, “ruler of the city”
Jerimoth Jeremiah son of Hilkiah
Conaniah and his brother Shemei, supervisors
(2 Chron. 31:12)
Conaniah/Cononiah, along with his brothers Shemaiah and Nethanel (2 Chron. 35:9)
Hananiah the prophet, son of Azzur/Azur (Azariah)  (Jer. 28)
Nahath Nathan-el/Nathan-e-el/El-Nathan/Nathan-Melech
2 Kings 23:11
Mattaniah, Mahath Mattaniah (future Zedekiah)
Jehiel Jehiel, “administrator of God’s temple”
Asaph, Heman and Jeduthun
2 Chron. 29:13-14
Asaph, Heman and Jeduthun
(2 Chron. 35:15)
Shallum/Meshillemoth (reign of Ahaz) Meshullam (the Kohathite)
Shellemiah son of Cushi (Jer. 36:14)
No mention of a prophetess

[Mackey: What about Judith?]

Huldah, wife of Shallam/Meshullam,
prophetess (spokeswoman of the “Lord”)
Shemaiah Shemaiah
Jozabad Jozabad
Jeiel Jeiel
Joah son of Zimmah (“wicked”)
Joah son of Asaph, recorder
Joah son of “wicked” Jo-Ahaz (King Ahaz)/
Imnah?
Obed, prophet (reign of Ahaz), Abde-el, Tabeel Obadiah

 

 

The least reconcilable detail of comparison at this stage has to be this one:

 

 

Hezekiah                                                Josiah

 

25 years at ascension, reigned 29 years 8 years at ascension, reigned 31 years

 

I do not have any convincing solution for this one.

A thought: Could it be that some biographical details for Josiah were confused with those of the earlier Joash (Jehoash), also a boy-king, who worked at restoring the Temple in much the same fashion as would Josiah?

 

 

A Revised History of the Era of King Hezekiah

Published September 20, 2018 by amaic

Image result for king hezekiah

by

 Damien F. Mackey

 

  

Part One:

A conventional overview of this period

 

 

My intention in this series will be to contrast the conventional king-lists for Judah; Egypt-Ethiopia; and Assyro-Babylonia for this period (c. 716 – c. 596 BC) with my recently revised version of it which will lop off almost half a century from this approximately 120–year span.

  

{The following dates are all conventional, and approximate only, BC dates}

 

Later Kings of Judah

 

Hezekiah                                 716-687

Manasseh                                687-643

Amon                                       643-641

Josiah                                      641-609

[Jehoahaz]

Jehoiakim                                608-596

Jehoiachin (Jeconiah)             596

 

 

Later Pharaohs of Egypt-Ethiopia

 

                                    Piye                                         744-714

                                    Shebitku                                   714-705

                                    Shabaka                                  705-690

                                    Taharqa (Tirhakah)                690-664           Necho I            672-664

                                    Tantamani                               664-653           Psamtik I         664-610                                                                                                           Necho II          610-595

                                                                                                            Psamtik II        595-

 

Neo-Assyrian-Babylonian Kings

 

                                    Sargon II                                 722-705

                                    Sennacherib                            705-681

                                    Esarhaddon                             681-669

                                    Ashurbanipal                           669-627

                                    Ashur-etil-ilani                        631-627

                                    Sin-shumu-lishir                      626

                                    Sin-shar-ishkun                       627-612

 

                                    Nabopolassar                          626-605

                                    Nebuchednezzar II                  605-562

                                    ….

 

 

 

Part Two (i): Sorting out later kings of Judah

 

 

Looking at the conventional version of the:

 

Later Kings of Judah

 

Hezekiah                                 716-687

Manasseh                                687-643

Amon                                      643-641

Josiah                                      641-609

[Jehoahaz]

Jehoiakim                                608-596

Jehoiachin (Jeconiah)              596

 

I can see some serious problems here, but also, now, I perceive the need to re-organise various things.

 

Hezekiah

 

With the Fall of Samaria conventionally dated to c. 722/21 BC, then the favoured date these days for the beginning of the reign of King Hezekiah of Judah, c. 716 BC, is blatantly contrary to the flat statement of the OT (e.g. 2 Kings 18:10): “Three years later, during the sixth year of King Hezekiah’s reign and the ninth year of King Hoshea’s reign in Israel, Samaria fell”. The Bible here assists us with a 3-way synchronism (Hezekiah; Hoshea; and Fall of Samaria) which scholars, though, choose completely to brush aside, they preferring to follow the confusing and erroneous (neo-Assyrian-based) chronology of Edwin R. Thiele, in The Mysterious Numbers of the Hebrew Kings.

 

If the Fall of Samaria is to be dated c. 722 BC (a conventional date which will end up in the long run being hopelessly inaccurate – but which can serve as a ‘sighter’ for the time being), then King Hezekiah’s regnal beginning has to be set at c. 729/8 BC, and not at 716 BC.

 

More will be said on King Hezekiah later, as we find an important regal alter ego for him.

 

 

Manasseh

 

Although Manasseh would indeed continue on for 55 years, it now needs to be understood (and this is certainly radical) that more than forty of those years were spent in Babylonian (and probably also Susan) captivity.

This situation serves to explain why the prophet Jeremiah could point the finger at (the conventionally well dead) Manasseh as the cause of the Jewish deportations (Jeremiah 15:4): “And I will cause them to be removed into all kingdoms of the earth, because of Manasseh the son of Hezekiah king of Judah, for that which he did in Jerusalem”.

 

More will be said on Manasseh later, as we find a regal alter ego for him.

 

 

Amon

 

How could this young king of only two years of reign in Jerusalem have gone down in biblical history as being even worse than his long-reigning father, Manasseh?

Thus 2 Chronicles 33:21-23:

 

Amon was twenty-two years old when he became king, and he reigned in Jerusalem two years. He did evil in the eyes of the Lord, as his father Manasseh had done. Amon worshiped and offered sacrifices to all the idols Manasseh had made. But unlike his father Manasseh, he did not humble himself before the Lord; Amon increased his guilt.

 

Once again the explanation lies in the facts that (i) the king continued on for a very long time in captivity, and (ii) he acquired a very nasty alter ego.

For a full account of all of this, see my article:

 

King Amon’s descent into Aman (Haman)

 

https://www.academia.edu/37376989/King_Amons_descent_into_Aman_Haman_

 

 

 

‘Alter egos’ now come into play

 

While I accept this standard sequence of Judaean kings so far, Hezekiah, father of Manasseh, father of Amon, I now believe that the remaining kings, Josiah, Jehoiakim and Jehoiachin, are simply duplicates of the first trio, so that:

 

Hezekiah = Josiah;

Manasseh = Jehoiakim;

Amon = Jehoiachin.

 

Sorting out some complications

 

There are complications, though, as I have discussed before, insofar as various biblical texts, including Matthew’s ‘Genealogy of Jesus the Messiah’, give Amon as the father of Josiah (Matthew 1:10), plus the fact that different names are given for the mothers of kings who I am arguing are duplicates.

Some versions of Matthew 1:10, however, give “Amos” as the father of Josiah, and Amos is a name very different from the apparently Egyptian name, Amon – probably given to Jehoiachin by his Egypt-leaning father, Jehoiakim, or by the pharaoh:

https://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jehoiakim

Jehoiakim, who was 25 when he ascended the throne (according to I Chron. 3:15 he was the second son of Josiah), was most likely selected because of his known support of a pro-Egyptian policy. Jehoiakim’s original name Eliakim was changed by the Pharaoh in order to indicate the Judahite king’s subservience to Egypt (II Kings 23:34; II Chron. 36:4). Egypt also imposed a heavy tax on Judah – 100 talents of silver and a talent of gold – which Jehoiakim exacted by levying a tax upon all people of the land (II Kings 23:33, 35).

 

Father’s names

 

I would now re-identify this “Amos” with Ahaz – whether this was another name for Ahaz, or simply a scribal error, perhaps a confusion with Amon – thus refining my above list to:

 

Ahaz = Amos;

Hezekiah = Josiah;

Manasseh = Jehoiakim;

Amon = Jehoiachin.

 

The fact that the various kings of Judah at this time had more than the one name (e.g., Jehoiakim was formerly Eliakim, 2 Kings 23:34; Zedekiah was formerly Mattaniah, 2 Kings 24:17) assists me somewhat in my case for alter egos.

 

Mothers’ names

 

The differing names of the women (mothers) can be accounted for, at least to some extent, by the fact that sometimes a woman was named “mother” who was not the biological mother. King Amon was, for instance, in his guise as the evil Haman (see above article on “Haman”) the “son of Hammedatha” (Esther 3:1); Hammedatha, a woman, being the mother of Amon’s (i.e., Jehoiachin’s) uncles (Jehoahaz and Zedekiah), as (queen) Ham[m]utal (cf. 2 Kings 23:31 and 24:18).

In the case of my Manasseh = Jehoiakim identification, Manasseh’s mother (2 Kings 21:1), Hephzibah, could perhaps be the same person as king Jehoiakim’s mother (2 Kings 23:36): “[Jehoiakim’s] mother’s name was Zebidah daughter of Pedaiah; she was from Rumah”.

Heph-zibah = Zebi-dah?

 

According to 2 Kings 18:2: “[Hezekiah’s] mother’s name was Abijah [or Abi], daughter of Zechariah”, whilst (his alter ego) “[Josiah’s] mother’s name was Jedidah daughter of Adaiah; she was from Bozkath”.

The latter, I find, bears some resemblance to Jehoiakim’s [= Manasseh’s] mother, “Zebidah daughter of Pedaiah” – compare with “Jedidah daughter of Adaiah”.

The location of Rumah (for Jehoiakim’s mother) “is disputed” (Nadav Na’aman, Ancient Israel and Its Neighbors: Interaction and Counteraction, p. 355).

 

 

Previously we found that certain complications inevitably arise from my re-casting of the later kings of Judah as follows:

 

Ahaz = Amos;

Hezekiah = Josiah;

Manasseh = Jehoiakim;

Amon = Jehoiachin.

 

But I was also gratified to find that, with regard to my dependence upon alter egos for my reconstruction, some of the kings of Judah at the time were biblically known to have had more than the one name.

We also found that, whilst mother’s names may appear to be inconsistent with my revision, at least one of those designated as a “mother” of a particular king was not in fact his biological mother, but was the mother of that king’s uncles.

 

The complications that arise from my revision do become more severe, though, for this next category:

 

Regnal years, ages at accession

 

In the case of Amon = Jehoiachin, the differences in regnal years and ages at commencement of reign can fairly easily be accounted for by co-regency, as I have already suggested.

And, whilst the 55-years of reign attributed to Manasseh (2 Kings 21:1) far outnumber the eleven years attributed to (my alter ego for him) Jehoiakim (2 Kings 23:36), the count of Manasseh’s years continued on, as I have suggested, into his long captivity in Babylon.

In the same way, Jehoiachin’s reign of only “three months” in Jerusalem (2 Kings 24:8), will be extended to his “thirty-seventh year” in captivity in 2 Kings 25:27.

 

However, there is a big discrepancy, much harder to account for, in the case of my:

 

Hezekiah = Josiah.

 

“[Hezekiah] was twenty-five years old when he became king, and he reigned in Jerusalem twenty-nine years” (2 King 18:2).

Josiah was eight years old when he became king, and he reigned in Jerusalem thirty-one years (2 Kings 22:1)”.

 

At this stage, I do not have a satisfactory solution to this very large discrepancy in age at accession (25 years versus 8 years).

Added to this is the fact that Sirach praises Hezekiah (48:17-22) and Josiah (49:1-3) as if referring to two separate kings, concluding with (49:4): “Except for David and Hezekiah and Josiah, all of them were great sinners, for they abandoned the law of the Most High; the kings of Judah came to an end”.

 

Places of burial

 

Francesca Stavrakopoulou provides a useful comment on the burials of the kings in question in this article, “Exploring the Garden of Uzza: Death, Burial and Ideologies of Kingship”: https://www.jstor.org/stable/pdf/42614642.pdf

 

As is well known, almost every Judahite monarch up to and including Ahaz is said to have been buried “with his ancestors in the City of David” (2), whilst the burial notices for Ahaz’s successors are either inconsistent or non-existent: Manasseh is buried “in the garden of his house in the Garden of Uzza” (2 Kgs 21,18); Amon’s body is interred “in his tomb in the Garden of Uzza” (21 ,26); Josiah is buried “in his tomb” (23,30); the resting places of Hezekiah and Jehoiakim go unmentioned though their deaths are acknowledged (20,21; 24,6); Jehoahaz is said to die whilst in Egyptian captivity (23,34); and neither the deaths nor the burials of Jehoiachin and Zedekiah are noted. Given the important theological and narrative functions of the death and burial notices in emphasizing the continuity of the Davidic dynasty (3), these variations have proved problematic for many commentators. ….

 

Interestingly, here, the two kings of Judah who went into long captivity, Manasseh and Amon, were buried in the same place, in their palace garden (“the Garden of Uzza”).

Considering that Amon, as Haman, was killed in his palace, in Susa, then this unknown “Garden” must have been situated in Susa.

And that would explain why neither Manasseh, nor Amon, was buried – like their ancestors were – “in the City of David”.

‘The death and burial of king Jehoiachin is not noted’ because these details have been noted in two other instances, in the cases of Jehoiachin’s alter egos, (i) Amon:

 

(2 Kings 21:23-24): “Amon’s officials conspired against him and assassinated the king in his palace. Then the people of the land killed all who had plotted against King Amon, and they made Josiah his son king in his place”.

 

and (ii) Haman:

 

(Esther 7:9-10): “Then Harbona, one of the eunuchs attending the king, said, ‘A pole reaching to a height of fifty cubits stands by Haman’s house [palace]. He had it set up for Mordecai, who spoke up to help the king’. The king said, ‘Impale him on it!’ So they impaled Haman on the pole he had set up for Mordecai. Then the king’s fury subsided”.

 

“The people of the land” who then avenged Amon would have been the people of the land of Susa, some of whom would eventually swing over to the side of the Jews:

https://www.myjewishlearning.com/article/thriving-in-the-diaspora/

The Book of Esther tells that many of the peoples of the land became Jews or passed themselves off as Jews. While the obvious motive for this behavior was fear of the new Jewish power, the result was that people now saw Jews as a religious community that all could join, not just a tribe living in a certain land.

 

Part Two (ii):

Benefits from sorting out later kings of Judah

 

 

What are some of these benefits?

 

For one, with several of the later kings of Judah now identified as duplicates, namely:

 

Ahaz = Amos;

Hezekiah = Josiah;

Manasseh = Jehoiakim;

Amon = Jehoiachin,

 

then certain kings of Judah inexplicably omitted from Matthew’s Genealogy can be re-instated. I refer to kings Joash (Jehoash) and Amaziah, and possibly even their predecessor Ahaziah.

And, does king Jehoiachin (= Amon = Haman) need to figure anymore in Matthew’s Genealogy, considering that he and his sons were all slain?

This latter situation may also be the key to Daniel 9:26: “… an anointed one will be put to death and will have nothing”.

 

Secondly, with Hezekiah now expanded to include Josiah, this would fill out an important king of Judah who almost seems to disappear from the scene after only his 14th year.

That Hezekiah, Josiah, shared the same officials is apparent from this:

Chart 37

Comparison of Hezekiah and Josiah Narratives

http://www.domainofman.com/book/chart-37.html

which I accept in general – though not in every detail.

Hezekiah’s merging with Josiah would solve problems like this legitimate one:

https://hermeneutics.stackexchange.com/questions/1298/who-was-a-greater-king-hezekiah-

 

Who was a greater king: Hezekiah or Josiah?

 

About Hezekiah, we read in 2 Kings 18:5-6:

Hezekiah trusted in the LORD, the God of Israel. There was no one like him among all the kings of Judah, either before him or after him. He held fast to the LORD and did not cease to follow him; he kept the commands the LORD had given Moses.

 

But then about Josiah a couple chapters later in 2 Kings 23:25:

Neither before nor after Josiah was there a king like him who turned to the LORD as he did—with all his heart and with all his soul and with all his strength, in accordance with all the Law of Moses.

 

How can the reigns of Hezekiah and Josiah both be the greatest, especially when it is said of both that neither before nor after him was there a king like him? Is this a contradiction?

[End of quotes]

 

Thirdly, with the eras of Hezekiah, of Josiah, now crunched together, the respective great prophets, Isaiah, and Jeremiah, would become contemporaneous.

This enables for Isaiah’s “Suffering Servant”, so reminiscent of the prophet Jeremiah (but culminating perfectly in Jesus Christ), to be Jeremiah, now personally known to Isaiah (Jeremiah’s older contemporary).  

 

Fourthly, the traditionally well attested ‘Martyrdom of Isaiah’ at the hands of king Manasseh – unknown, however, from the biblical record of Manasseh, qua Manasseh – can be found in the martyrdom of the prophet Uriah (Urijah) at the hands of Manasseh’s alter ego, king Jehoiakim (Jeremiah 26:23).

 

Fifthly, Manasseh’s identification with Jehoiakim would explain why Jeremiah could attribute to Manasseh – instead of Jehoiakim – the guilt for the deportations of the Jews (Jeremiah 15:4).

 

Sixthly, we can now count the regnal years of Manasseh through the eleven years of Jehoiakim (the latter’s 4th corresponding with the 1st of king Nebuchednezzar, Jeremiah 25:1), through Nebuchednezzar’s 43rd (= Manasseh’s 46th); 3-4 of Evil-Merodach (= Manasseh’s 50th); and on for approximately another 5 years into the Medo-Persian era. This means that:

 

Seventhly, Manasseh can now likely be identified with the “Sheshbazzar the prince of Judah” (Ezra 1:8), who returns briefly to restore to Jerusalem the treasures stolen by the Babylonians, but who dies a few years later and is buried in the “Garden of Uzza”, in Susa (as I have estimated), where the executed king Amon (Haman) will later be buried.

 

Part Three:

Merging pharaoh Necho I and pharaoh Necho II

 

 

If king Hezekiah of Judah is to be identified with king Josiah, as according to this series, then it becomes inevitable that there can be only one pharaoh Necho, and that Necho so-called II, who killed Josiah, must be the same as Necho I of the approximate era of king Hezekiah.

 

Art historians find it hard to determine whether a pharaonic statue represents Necho I or II. Moreover, Necho I is poorly known – as is apparent from the following:

https://www.brooklynmuseum.org/opencollection/objects/3798

 

 

This sculpture [see next page] probably belonged to a group showing the king presenting an offering to a god. The inscription indicates that the royal figure was King Necho. Two [sic] Saite rulers had this name, the little-known Necho I and the more celebrated Necho II in whose reign the Egyptians circumnavigated Africa and attempted to link the Mediterranean and Red seas with a canal. Which Necho is represented is not known.  

 

Again, we do not know at least the Horus Name, Nebty Name, or Golden Horus Name, of pharaoh Necho I: http://www.phouka.com/pharaoh/pharaoh/dynasties/dyn26/01nekau1.html

Kneeling Statuette of King Necho, ca. 610-595 B.C.E. Bronze, 5 1/2 x 2 1/4 x 2 3/4in. (14 x 5.7 x 7cm). Brooklyn Museum, Charles Edwin Wilbour Fund, 71.11. Creative Commons-BY (Photo: Brooklyn Museum, 71.11_threequarter_PS1.jpg)” 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” border=”0″ v:shapes=”Picture_x0020_6″>

 

 

It becomes inevitable now, also, that Psamtik (Psammetichus) I, son of Necho I, be identified with Psamtik (Psammetichus) II, son of Necho II.

 

 

 

Part Four:

Merging neo-Assyrians and neo-Babylonians

 

 

 

If pharaoh Necho I is to be identified with pharaoh Necho II, as according to this series, then it becomes inevitable now that Necho I’s Mesopotamian contemporaries, Esarhaddon and Ashurbanipal, must be the same as Necho II’s Mesopotamian contemporaries, respectively Nabopolassar and Nebuchednezzar II.

 

For more on this, see e.g. my article:

 

Ashurbanipal the Great

 

https://www.academia.edu/33679189/Ashurbanipal_the_Great

Cambyses also named Nebuchadnezzar?

Published August 30, 2018 by amaic
Image result for army of cambyses

 

by

Damien F. Mackey

 

  

“The Chronicle of John of Nikiu who wrote of Cambyses[’] exploits after his name change to Nebuchadnezzar. He wrote of how Cambyses under his new name Nebuchadnezzar destroyed Jerusalem and desolated Egypt. It becomes apparent therefore that John gave credit to Cambyses for what Nebuchadnezzar accomplished”.

 http://www.topix.com/forum/religion/jehovahs-witness/THIK59UKCUF68BLNL/evidence-indicating-egypts-40-year-desolation

 

 

 

Previously I wrote, regarding likenesses I had perceived between Cambyses and my various alter egos for king Nebuchednezzar II (including Ashurbanipal and Nabonidus):

Common factors here may include ‘divine’ madness; confounding the priests by messing with the Babylonian rites; and the conquest of Egypt and Ethiopia.

 

I was then totally unaware of this name claim about Cambyses by John of Nikiu.

Part Two:

Named Nebuchednezzar, and can be Nebuchednezzar

 

 

… my enlargement of the historical Nebuchednezzar II, through alter egos,

to embrace Ashurbanipal and Nabonidus – and now, too, Cambyses – provides

a complete ‘profile’ of the biblical king that ‘covers all bases’, so to speak.

 

 

 

For some time, now, I have suspected that the mad but powerful, Egypt-conquering Cambyses had to be the same as the mad but powerful, Egypt-conquering Nebuchednezzar II.

And now I learn that the C7th AD Egyptian Coptic bishop, John of Nikiû (680-690 AD, conventional dating), had told that Cambyses was also called Nebuchednezzar.

This new piece of information has emboldened me to do – what I have wanted to – and that is to say with confidence that Cambyses was Nebuchednezzar II.

That Nebuchednezzar II also reigned in Susa is evidenced by (if I am right) my identification of him with the “king Artaxerxes” of the Book of Nehemiah, who was a “king of Babylon”.

See my series: “Governor Nehemiah’s master “Artaxerxes king of Babylon”,”, especially Part One:

https://www.academia.edu/37223770/Governor_Nehemiahs_master_Artaxerxes_king_of_Babylon_._Part_One_Nehemiah_and_that_broken_down_wall_

and Part Two:

https://www.academia.edu/37223861/Governor_Nehemiahs_master_Artaxerxes_king_of_Babylon_._Part_Two_Artaxerxes_as_king_Nebuchednezzar

 

Whilst critics can argue that the “king Nebuchednezzar” of the Book of Daniel may not necessarily be a good match for the historico-biblical Nebuchednezzar II, but that he seems more likely to have been based on king Nabonidus, my enlargement of the historical Nebuchednezzar II, through alter egos, to embrace Ashurbanipal and Nabonidus – and now, too, Cambyses – provides a complete ‘profile’ of the biblical king that ‘covers all bases’, so to speak.

 

Part Three:

‘Sacred disease’ (read madness) of King Cambyses

 

“In view of all this, I have no doubt that Cambyses was completely out of his mind;

it is the only possible explanation of his assault upon, and mockery of,

everything which ancient law and custom have made sacred in Egypt”.

 Herodotus

 

 

When subjecting neo-Babylonian history to a serious revision, I had reached the conclusion that Nebuchednezzar II needed to be folded with Nabonidus, and that Nebuchednezzar II’s son-successor, Evil-Merodach, needed to be folded with Nabonidus’s son, Belshazzar.

That accorded perfectly with the testimony of the Book of Daniel that “Nebuchednezzar” was succeeded by his son, “Belshazzar”.

 

One of the various traits shared by Daniel’s “Nebuchednezzar” and King Nabonidus was madness.

Useful in a discussion of this subject, I found, was Siegfried H. Horn’s article, “New light on Nebuchadnezzar’s madness”, which helpfully provided some possible evidence for madness in the case of Nebuchednezzar II.

Horn also proved useful in paving the way for my parallel situation of Evil-Merodach son of Nebuchednezzar II, and Belshazzar son of Nabonidus, when writing of Evil-Merodach’s possibly officiating in the place of a temporarily incapacitated king (as Belshazzar is known to have done in the case of Nabonidus).

Thus Horn wrote:

 

…. Since Daniel records that Nebuchadnezzar was “driven from men” (Dan. 4:33) but later reinstated as king by his officials (verse 36), Evilmerodach, Nebuchadnezzar’s eldest son, may have served as regent during his father’s incapacity. Official records, however, show Nebuchadnezzar as king during his lifetime.

 

Cambyses

 

Books, articles and classics have been written about the madness of King Cambyses, he conventionally considered to have been the second (II) king of that name, a Persian (c. 529-522 BC), and the son/successor of Cyrus the Great.

The tradition is thought to have begun with the C5th BC Greek historian, Herodotus, according to whom (The Histories)

http://www.reshafim.org.il/ad/egypt/herodotus/cambyses.htm

 

[3.29.1] When the priests led Apis in, Cambyses–for he was all but mad–drew his dagger and, meaning to stab the calf in the belly, stuck the thigh; then laughing he said to the priests: [3.29.2] “Simpletons, are these your gods, creatures of flesh and blood that can feel weapons of iron? That is a god worthy of the Egyptians. But for you, you shall suffer for making me your laughing-stock.” So saying he bade those, whose business it was, to scourge the priests well, and to kill any other Egyptian whom they found holiday-making. [3.29.3] So the Egyptian festival ended, and the priests were punished, and Apis lay in the temple and died of the wound in the thigh. When he was dead of the wound, the priests buried him without Cambyses’ knowledge.

[3.30.1] But Cambyses, the Egyptians say, owing to this wrongful act immediately went mad, although even before he had not been sensible. His first evil act was to destroy his full brother Smerdis, whom he had sent away from Egypt to Persia out of jealousy, because Smerdis alone could draw the bow brought from the Ethiopian by the Fish-eaters as far as two fingerbreadths, but no other Persian could draw it.

[3.30.2] Smerdis having gone to Persia, Cambyses saw in a dream a vision, in which it seemed to him that a messenger came from Persia and told him that Smerdis sitting on the royal throne touched heaven with his head.

[3.30.3] Fearing therefore for himself, lest his brother might slay him and so be king, he sent Prexaspes, the most trusted of his Persians, to Persia to kill him. Prexaspes went up to Susa and killed Smerdis; some say that he took Smerdis out hunting, others that he brought him to the Red Sea (the Persian Gulf) and there drowned him. ….

 

[End of quote]

 

And:

 

http://www.livius.org/sources/content/herodotus/herodotus-comment-on-cambyses-madness/

 

Herodotus’ Comment on Cambyses’ Madness

 

[3.38] In view of all this, I have no doubt that Cambyses was completely out of his mind; it is the only possible explanation of his assault upon, and mockery of, everything which ancient law and custom have made sacred in Egypt.

[End of quote]

 

 

Scholarly articles have been written in an attempt to diagnose the illness of Cambyses, sometimes referred to – as in the case of Julius Caesar’s epilepsy – as a ‘divine’ or ‘sacred’ disease.

For example (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11594937):

 

Arch Neurol. 2001 Oct; 58(10):1702-4.

 

The sacred disease of Cambyses II.

 

York GK1, Steinberg DA.

 

Abstract

Herodotus’ account of the mad acts of the Persian king Cambyses II contains one of the two extant pre-Hippocratic Greek references to epilepsy. This reference helps to illuminate Greek thinking about epilepsy, and disease more generally, in the time immediately preceding the publication of the Hippocratic treatise on epilepsy, On the Sacred Disease. Herodotus attributed Cambyses’ erratic behavior as ruler of Egypt to either the retribution of an aggrieved god or to the fact that he had the sacred disease. Herodotus considered the possibility that the sacred disease was a somatic illness, agreeing with later Hippocratic authors that epilepsy has a natural rather than a divine cause. ….

[End of quote]

 

The character of Cambyses as presented in various ancient traditions is thoroughly treated in Herb Storck’s excellent monograph, History and Prophecy: A Study in the Post-Exilic Period (House of Nabu, 1989).

 

Messing with the rites

 

As was the case with King Nabonidus (= Nebuchednezzar II), so did Cambyses apparently fail properly to observe established protocol with the Babylonian rites.

 

Regarding the rebellious behaviour of King Nabonidus with regard to the rites, I wrote previously:

 

Confounding the Astrologers

 

Despite his superstitious nature the “Nebuchednezzar” of the Book of Daniel – and indeed his alter egos, Nebuchednezzar II/Nabonidus – did not hesitate at times to dictate terms to his wise men or astrologers (2:5-6):

 

The king replied to the astrologers, “This is what I have firmly decided: If you do not tell me what my dream was and interpret it, I will have you cut into pieces and your houses turned into piles of rubble.  But if you tell me the dream and explain it, you will receive from me gifts and rewards and great honor. So tell me the dream and interpret it for me.”

 

And so, in the Verse Account, we read too of Nabonidus’ interference in matters ritualistic in the presence of sycophantic officials:

 

Yet he continues to mix up the rites, he confuses the hepatoscopic oracles. To the most important ritual observances, he orders an end; as to the sacred representations in Esagila -representations which Eamumma himself had fashioned- he looks at the representations and utters blasphemies.

When he saw the usar-symbol of Esagila, he makes an [insulting?] gesture. He assembled the priestly scholars, he expounded to them as follows: ‘Is not this the sign of ownership indicating for whom the temple was built? If it belongs really to Bêl, it would have been marked with the spade. Therefore the Moon himself has marked already his own temple with the usar-symbol!’

And Zeriya, the šatammu who used to crouch as his secretary in front of him, and Rimut, the bookkeeper who used to have his court position near to him, do confirm the royal dictum, stand by his words, they even bare their heads to pronounce under oath: ‘Now only we understand this situation, after the king has explained about it!’

 

[End of quote]

 

Paul-Alain Beaulieu, in his book, The Reign of Nabonidus, King of Babylon, 556-539 B.C. (1989), gives another similar instance pertaining to an eclipse (Col. III 2), likening it also to the action of “Nebuchednezzar” in the Book of Daniel (pp. 128-129):

 

The scribes brought baskets from Babylon (containing) the tablets of the series enūma Anu Enlil to check (it, but since) he did not hearken to (what it said), he did not understand what it meant.

 

The passage is difficult, but its general implications are clear. Whether Nabonidus had already made up his mind as to the meaning of the eclipse and therefore refused to check the astrological series, or did check them but disagreed with the scribes on their interpretation, it seems that the consecration of En-nigaldi-Nanna [daughter of Nabonidus] was felt to be uncalled for. This alleged stubbornness of the king is perhaps reflected in the Book of Daniel, in the passage where Nebuchednezzar (i.e. Nabonidus), after having dismissed the plea of the “Chaldeans”, states that the matter is settled for him (Daniel II, 3-5) ….

 

But this does not imply that Nabonidus was necessarily wrong in his interpretation of the eclipse; on the contrary, all the evidence suggests that he was right. However, he may have “forced” things slightly ….

[End of quote]

 

According to Encyclopaedia Iranica on Cambyses II:

http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/cambyses-opers

 

A badly damaged passage in the chronicle of Nabonidus contains a report that, in order to legitimize his appointment, Cambyses partici­pated in the ritual prescribed for the king at the traditional New Year festival on 27 March 538 B.C., accepting the royal scepter from the hands of Marduk in Esagila, the god’s temple in Babylon (III. 24-28; Gray­son, p. 111). A. L. Oppenheim attempted a reconstruc­tion of the damaged text (Survey of Persian Art XV, p. 3501); according to his version, Cambyses entered the temple in ordinary Elamite attire, fully armed. The priests persuaded him to lay down his arms, but he refused to change his clothes for those prescribed in the ritual. He then received the royal scepter. In Oppenheim’s view Cambyses thus deliberately demon­strated “a deep-seated religious conviction” hostile to this alien religion (Camb. Hist. Iran II, p. 557).

[End of quote]

 

Part Five: Cambyses – in your dreams

 

 

“Cambyses has a “Nebuchednezzar” like dream-vision

of a king whose head touched heaven”.

 

 

Our neo-Babylonian king, Nabonidus, was, true to form (as an alter ego for Daniel’s “Nebuchednezzar”), a frequent recipient of dreams and visions.

For example, I wrote previously:

 

Nabonidus was, like “Nebuchednezzar”, an excessively pious man, and highly superstitious. The secret knowledge of which he boasted was what he had acquired through his dreams. Another characteristic that Nabonidus shared with “Nebuchednezzar”. Nabonidus announced (loc. cit.): “The god Ilteri has made me see (dreams), he has made everything kno[wn to me]. I surpass in all (kinds of) wisdom (even the series) uskar-Anum-Enlilla, which Adap[a] composed”. ….

[End of quote]

 

In Beaulieu’s book … we read further of King Nabonidus:

 

“I did not stop going to the diviner and the dream interpreter”.

 

And of King Nebuchednezzar II – with whom I am equating Nabonidus – the prophet Ezekiel writes similarly of that king’s omen seeking (21:21): “The king of Babylon now stands at the fork, uncertain whether to attack Jerusalem or Rabbah. He calls his magicians to look for omens. They cast lots by shaking arrows from the quiver. They inspect the livers of animal sacrifices”.

[End of quote]

 

Ashurbanipal, likewise – he being yet another alter ego – gave immense credence to dreams and used a dream book. Ashurbanipal was, like Nabonidus, more superstitious, if I may say it, than Nostradamus being pursued by a large black cat under a ladder – on the thirteenth.

Karen Radner tells of Ashurbanipal’s reliance upon dreams, in Of God(s), Trees, Kings, and scholars (p. 224): https://www.ucl.ac.uk/sargon/downloads/radner_fs_parpola_2009.pdf

 

In the Biblical attestations, especially in the stories of Nebuchadnezzar’s dream and Joseph in Egypt, the arummîm17 [wizards] figure prominently as experts in the interpretation of dreams, and it may be this kind of expertise which the aribē offered to the Assyrian king; dream oracles were certainly popular with Assurbanipal who used dreams … to legitimise his actions in his royal inscriptions … and whose library contained the dream omen series Zaqīqu (also Ziqīqu). ….

[End of quote]

 

Now, what of Cambyses in this regard?

Well, according to Herodotus (http://www.reshafim.org.il/ad/egypt/herodotus/cambyses.htm)

 

[3.30.1] But Cambyses, the Egyptians say, owing to this wrongful act immediately went mad, although even before he had not been sensible. His first evil act was to destroy his full brother Smerdis, whom he had sent away from Egypt to Persia out of jealousy, because Smerdis alone could draw the bow brought from the Ethiopian by the Fish-eaters as far as two fingerbreadths, but no other Persian could draw it. [3.30.2] Smerdis having gone to Persia, Cambyses saw in a dream a vision, in which it seemed to him that a messenger came from Persia and told him that Smerdis sitting on the royal throne touched heaven with his head. [3.30.3] Fearing therefore for himself, lest his brother might slay him and so be king, he sent Prexaspes, the most trusted of his Persians, to Persia to kill him. Prexaspes went up to Susa and killed Smerdis; some say that he took Smerdis out hunting, others that he brought him to the Red Sea (the Persian Gulf) and there drowned him.

[End of quote]

This is actually, as we shall now find, quite Danielic.

Cambyses has a “Nebuchednezzar” like dream-vision of a king whose head touched heaven. Likewise, “Nebuchednezzar” had a dream of a “tree … which grew large and strong, with its top touching the sky” (Daniel 4:20).

Now, given that this “tree” symbolised “Nebuchednezzar” himself, who was also according to an earlier dream a “head of gold (Daniel 2:38), then one might say that, as in the case of Cambyses dream-vision of a king whose head touched heaven, so did “Nebuchednezzar” touch the sky (heaven) with his head (of gold).

Nebuchednezzar II makes a very poor “Nebuchadnezzar” f the Book of Judith

Published August 29, 2018 by amaic
Image result for assyrians armies

 

by

 Damien F. Mackey

 

 

A correspondent would favour the great Chaldean king, Nebuchednezzar II,

as the “King Nebuchadnezzar … ruling over the Assyrians from his capital city

of Nineveh” of the Book of Judith.

 

 

 

That correspondent has written:

 

….

 

As far as the Book of Tobit is concerned I note that Shalmaneser V did not die after the siege ended but it was he that led away the last of the Northern Tribes into captivity.

 

Some of his incidents occur during the reign of Sennacherib. That gem led me to my study of The Book of Judith and its historicity linked to the early years of Nebuchadnezzar.

 

Your thoughts on MB [Merodach-Baladan] 1st being MB of Sargon and Sennacherib had also occurred to me but I think I mention it just in passing. ….

 

What is the story of the army of 182,000 (+) that was defeated? What are your references, please?

 

 

Mackey replies:

 

….

 

Judith 7:2 (NSRA): “So all their warriors marched off that day; their fighting forces numbered one hundred seventy thousand infantry and twelve thousand cavalry, not counting the baggage and the foot soldiers handling it, a very great multitude”.

 

Even I, with my bad mathematics, can determine that 170,000 + 12,000 = 182,000, just 3,000 short of Sennacherib’s host of 185,000.

But then add “the foot soldiers handling [the baggage]”.

How often does an Assyrian king have an army of 182,000 plus men defeated?

 

You reckon Nebuchednezzar II fielded armies this big?

He certainly did not suffer any defeats in northern Israel (near Dothan)?

He never suffered annihilations, in fact. In my opinion, Nebuchednezzar would be the worst choice amongst the various candidates for the king in Judith as served up by scholars.

 

Dr. Stephanie Dalley has shown how the ancients regularly confused Sennacherib and Nebuchednezzar, Nineveh and Babylon, and has explained, in her book,

The Mystery of the Hanging Garden of Babylon that the famous gardens were actually in Nineveh, not Babylon. ….

 

 

To which the correspondent replied:

 

….

Early on I lost faith in ALTER EGOS and determined that in most instances the guy named was the guy meant.

 

So when JUDITH says it was Nebchadnezzar that sent Holofornes towards Judah then I trust the scribe.

 

Also my trust in prophetic numbers is zero. 

 

The numbers I trust are from JOSEPHUS. When he says that Ahmose drove out the Hyksos 393 years before Setnakht drove out the invaders of Egypt then I know the dates will be correct.

 

The fact that no one can identify those invaders is an interesting fact. 

 

I trust the totals Josephus gains by listing the Biblical Kings. They add up correctly but the length is wrong because of co regencies.

 

Africanus gives us dynasty lengths by using the word, “altogether” When those numbers are used the dynasties mesh. So I trust these numbers also.

 

The Book of Judith dates Nebuchadnezzar’s actions from two different starting dates.

 

One is when Nabopolassar made him king of Assyria in 612 BC and the other point is from his accession after Nab’s death in 604 BC.

 

One can send one’s self silly trying to make sense of most numbers in the Bible where prophecies are involved.

 

Josephus says that the Hyksos ruled Egypt for 511 years and that Israel was in bondage for 430 years till the Temple was started, IIRC.

 

BOTH THOSE NUMBERS MUST BE PADDED because Josephus just adds his internals with no recourse to overlaps.

 

SO, I implore you to be very careful of reliance on numbers unless those numbers have historic credibility. ….

 

 

Mackey replies:

 

 

All of the versions of the Book of Judith have the king of Nineveh campaigning in the east in his 12th year.

 

Although I am not good at mathematics, am no accountant, I must take that as intending only the one, not two, starting points.

 

This is a lead-up to the main drama of the book, the great western campaign, whose motivation was revenge upon the nations that had not assisted the king in his 12th year.

 

That second campaign will take place only after a period of time has elapsed wherein the king of Nineveh will manage finally to destroy the eastern king’s city.  

 

Sargon II (my Sennacherib) is duly found to be campaigning in the east in his 12th year.

 

Now, in the life of Nebuchednezzar II, we find him in his 12th year (c. 593 BC, conventional dating) campaigning in the west – the exact opposite to the Book of Judith.

 

(“Nebuchednezzar II”, Wikipedia)

“In 594/3 BC, the army was sent again to the west, possibly in reaction to the elevation of Psammetichus II to the throne of Egypt.[9] King Zedekiah of Judah attempted to organize opposition among the small states in the region but his capital, Jerusalem, was taken in 587 BC (the events are described in the Bible’s Books of Kings and Book of Jeremiah).[10]

 

This king never suffered anything like a massive defeat at the hands of Israel at any time in his reign, including within the range of the Book of Judith, after the king’s 12th year.

 

How did he manage to go on and take Phoenicia, and lay siege to Tyre for 13 years, and conquer Egypt, if his army had by now been absolutely decimated?

 

I repeat, Nebuchednezzar II is about the least likely king of all to have suffered a massive defeat of his army in northern Israel. ….

 

 

 

 

For more, see also my article:

 

Book of Judith: confusion of names

 

https://www.academia.edu/36599434/Book_of_Judith_confusion_of_names

 

Nehemiah prayed like Daniel

Published August 19, 2018 by amaic
Image result for prophet daniel praying

 

Governor Nehemiah’s master

“Artaxerxes king of Babylon”

 

Part Four:

Does this mean Nehemiah is Daniel?

(ii) Nehemiah prayed like Daniel

  

by

 Damien F. Mackey

 

 “Nehemiah not only looked to the creation but he looked to the revelation of God in his word. In Deuteronomy 7:21 he read for the Lord your God, the great and awesome God is among you. Daniel prayed the same words because he looked at the same written revelation of God (Dan 9:4)”.

Dr. Dennis K. Muldoon

 

According to the conclusions reached in this series, “Governor Nehemiah’s master “Artaxerxes king of Babylon”,” the “Artaxerxes” of the Book of Nehemiah, a “king of Babylon”, is none other than Nebuchednezzar II of Babylon, whilst Nehemiah is the great prophet Daniel – the name “Nehemiah” possibly being a Hebraïsed version of Daniel’s Persian name, “Nehuman”. Importantly, this means that Nehemiah was not responding over-dramatically to 150-year old broken down and burned walls of Jerusalem – which a conventional mid-C5th BC date for Nehemiah would seem to necessitate – but to the most recent destruction of the city of Jerusalem by Nebuchednezzar’s commander, Nebuzaradan.

 

Further indications of the reliability of my Daniel as Nehemiah argument are the uncanny similarities of Daniel’s, of Nehemiah’s prayers, fasting and attitude before the holy God.

There are plenty of such comparisons to be found on the Internet, though with the authors presuming that Daniel and Nehemiah were two different individuals, well separated in time. We read, for example, at:

www.bible-sermons.org/…/The%20Prayer%20of%20Daniel%20and%20Nehemiah%2

 

The Prayer of Daniel and Nehemiah 1-4-02

Daniel 9:1-19   Nehemiah 1:4-11

 

The Prayer of Jabez has been on the New York Times’ best seller list most of the year 2001.  I should be glad that a Christian book has held such a status. I must admit though, I have had a bad attitude about the book from day one.  When I saw it on the cover of a Christian book advertisement my first thought was, “that is really what America needs, another ‘bless me’ book.”  Yet, I have heard testimonies from people who were encouraged by the book.  Now you can get a Prayer of Jabez’ CD, coloring book, prayer journal, stationary, coffee mug and more.   We do need to remember to pray God’s blessing upon our own lives. I wouldn’t discourage you from reading the book or praying that God bless your life.  Blessings are things in our lives that cause us to be more dependent on Jesus. To the Apostle Paul that was a thorn.  To Jacob it was a crippled leg.

 

I believe the prayers of Daniel and Nehemiah are more appropriate for the church today.  You’ll see they go hand in hand, for the Lord was leading these men by the Holy Spirit to pray at the same time for the restoration of Judah.  The nation had gone into captivity a generation before, and now it was God’s time for the restoration.  When God is ready to act, He stirs His servants to prayer. When you hear of a variety of godly people praying for the same thing, watch to see what God is doing.

 

In Daniel 9, Daniel has read the prophecy of Jeremiah and knows that the restoration is at hand.  He might have said, “Oh well, if God said it, He’ll do it, so I’ll just sit here and watch it come about.”  Instead he went into desperate prayer.

 

Dan 9:1-3 (NIV)1 In the first year of Darius son of Xerxes (a Mede by descent), who was made ruler over the Babylonian kingdom–2 in the first year of his reign, I, Daniel, understood from the Scriptures, according to the word of the LORD given to Jeremiah the prophet, that the desolation of Jerusalem would last seventy years.3 So I turned to the Lord God and pleaded with him in prayer and petition, in fasting, and in sackcloth and ashes.

 

When was the last time you read the Word of God and it took you straight to your knees in prayer?  As he read the prophecy, he understood it was about to be fulfilled and so he turned to God in prayer, but not just in a casual way.  He pleaded with God in sackcloth and ashes.

 

Dan 9:4-5 (NIV)4 I prayed to the LORD my God and confessed: “O Lord, the great and awesome God, who keeps his covenant of love with all who love him and obey his commands, 5 we have sinned and done wrong. We have been wicked and have rebelled; we have turned away from your commands and laws.

 

Nehemiah and Daniel both use this description, “great and awesome God”. It must have been common in that time. I think that is because they had experienced the judgement of God.  When His judgements come down we find how utterly powerless we are, and in that recognition of how weak we are we see how great and awesome He is.  In that recognition of His just judgements we see the other side of the same coin, His faithful love to those who love and obey Him.  He starts his prayer just as Jesus taught us to pray, addressing the One to Whom our prayer is directed.

 

Then he says, “WE have sinned and done wrong.”  Not the people a generation ago who were first taken captive, but he says, “WE”.   That includes Daniel himself.  Daniel is one of the few men in the Bible of whom there is no recorded sin.  Surely he did sin and he knew he was a sinner.  This godly man had a realization that all sin is rebellion against the great and awesome God of creation.  Instead of comparing himself with his neighbors and considering himself better, he compares himself with God and sees himself as one with his neighbors- a sinner. He steps into the need of those around him and prays for them.  That is intercession.  It is what Jesus is doing for you right now.

 

But he doesn’t just stop after saying we have sinned, he goes on to say, “We have been wicked and have rebelled…”  All sin is rebellion against the rightful place of God in our lives. Everything we are and have is from His gracious hand, and so our total obedience and submission is owed to Him. The person who recognizes that is on the road to getting right with God.  WE have been wicked.  WE have ignored the Law and God’s commands.  We are getting just a portion of what we deserve.  ….

 

… let’s go on through the prayer and consider its application to our own life ….

 

Dan 9:6 (NIV)6 We have not listened to your servants the prophets, who spoke in your name to our kings, our princes and our fathers, and to all the people of the land.

 

There is a refusal to listen to the word of God through His servants to our leadership, to our fathers, and to the people of the land.  Even worse we refuse to listen to the Holy Spirit. The Word of God is proclaimed.  Unity and love for the body of Christ has been preached, but WE prefer to consider our ways and our doctrines the superior ones.  ….

 

Dan 9:7-8 (NIV)7 “Lord, you are righteous, but this day we are covered with shame–the men of Judah and people of Jerusalem and all Israel, both near and far, in all the countries where you have scattered us because of our unfaithfulness to you.8 O LORD, we and our kings, our princes and our fathers are covered with shame because we have sinned against you.

 

If we are able to sense shame for our unfaithfulness to the word, shame because of our refusal to hear, we have hope.  When there is no shame for sin, for disobedience there is a hardness of heart that has little hope of restoration.  But if we can sense shame … we have hope of restoration through our merciful God.  ….  Our ways have not been His ways.  Our thoughts have not been His thoughts.  WE have rebelled.

 

Dan 9:9-14 (NIV)9 The Lord our God is merciful and forgiving, even though we have rebelled against him;10 we have not obeyed the LORD our God or kept the laws he gave us through his servants the prophets.11 All Israel has transgressed your law and turned away, refusing to obey you. “Therefore the curses and sworn judgments written in the Law of Moses, the servant of God, have been poured out on us, because we have sinned against you.12 You have fulfilled the words spoken against us and against our rulers by bringing upon us great disaster. Under the whole heaven nothing has ever been done like what has been done to Jerusalem.13 Just as it is written in the Law of Moses, all this disaster has come upon us, yet we have not sought the favor of the LORD our God by turning from our sins and giving attention to your truth.14 The LORD did not hesitate to bring the disaster upon us, for the LORD our God is righteous in everything he does; yet we have not obeyed him.

 

Do we realize how merciful and forgiving God has been to us even though we have been rebels?  How did Daniel propose they seek God’s favor?  By turning from their sin and giving attention to the truth.  The truth is God hates slander.  Let us turn from it.  Let us give attention, instead, to the Word of God – the truth.  We are commanded to love one another and esteem others above ourselves– that is truth. We make factions in the body when Jesus says for us to be in unity. The Lord is righteous to bring the deserved judgement upon the church, but will we now obey?

 

Dan 9:15-19 (NIV)15 “Now, O Lord our God, who brought your people out of Egypt with a mighty hand and who made for yourself a name that endures to this day, we have sinned, we have done wrong.16 O Lord, in keeping with all your righteous acts, turn away your anger and your wrath from Jerusalem, your city, your holy hill. Our sins and the iniquities of our fathers have made Jerusalem and your people an object of scorn to all those around us.17 “Now, our God, hear the prayers and petitions of your servant. For your sake, O Lord, look with favor on your desolate sanctuary.18 Give ear, O God, and hear; open your eyes and see the desolation of the city that bears your Name. We do not make requests of you because we are righteous, but because of your great mercy.19 O Lord, listen! O Lord, forgive! O Lord, hear and act! For your sake, O my God, do not delay, because your city and your people bear your Name.”

 

God delivered us just as He delivered them.  We were slaves of sin as they were slaves of Egypt.  The deliverance was a testimony to God’s power, and yet we turned back to the captivity of sin, just like the Children of Israel desired to return to Egypt.  ….

 

Look at how Nehemiah was led to pray the same things after hearing about the condition of Jerusalem.

 

Nehemiah 1:4-11 (NIV)4 When I heard these things, I sat down and wept. For some days I mourned and fasted and prayed before the God of heaven.5 Then I said: “O LORD, God of heaven, the great and awesome God, who keeps his covenant of love with those who love him and obey his commands,6 let your ear be attentive and your eyes open to hear the prayer your servant is praying before you day and night for your servants, the people of Israel. I confess the sins we Israelites, including myself and my father’s house, have committed against you.7 We have acted very wickedly toward you. We have not obeyed the commands, decrees and laws you gave your servant Moses.8 “Remember the instruction you gave your servant Moses, saying, ‘If you are unfaithful, I will scatter you among the nations,9 but if you return to me and obey my commands, then even if your exiled people are at the farthest horizon, I will gather them from there and bring them to the place I have chosen as a dwelling for my Name.’10 “They are your servants and your people, whom you redeemed by your great strength and your mighty hand.11 O Lord, let your ear be attentive to the prayer of this your servant and to the prayer of your servants who delight in revering your nameGive your servant success today by granting him favor in the presence of this man.”

 

Do you see the similarities? He enters into intercession, praying for the people, on their behalf, and yet he includes himself as one who has sinned. He says the judgement is God’s faithfulness. He pleads for God to listen and forgive and restore the testimony, a dwelling for His name.  …. Nehemiah went from that prayer right to the King’s table with the first sad face he had ever worn in the King’s presence.  Nehemiah’s life and position were on the line.  He put feet to his prayer and trusted in the Lord to answer.

 

Those prayers were the beginning of a great work.  Parts of it went quickly. Part of it went slowly.  It was not free of treacherous people trying to stop it, and compromising people who hindered the blessing of God, but it still went forward. God helped them deal with one situation at a time.  The Temple, walls, and gates were rebuilt. People were assigned their places of ministry. The testimony was restored.  The world saw and said, “God is with them!”

 

…. Will you pray from your heart the prayer of Daniel and Nehemiah?

[End of quote]

 

Here is another comparison, this time from Rev. Dennis K. Muldoon:

http://www.pceasydney.org.au/Sermons/Nehemiah%27s_prayer.pdf

 

Nehemiah’s Prayer Study Text: Nehemiah 1:4-11

 

….

Nehemiah was a man of action but above all he was a man of prayer. Like Daniel he would have prayed three times a day facing towards Jerusalem. It was not simply that Jerusalem was his home place – it was the holy city. It was the temple city where the people of God worshipped. Nehemiah longed to worship God in the place that God had ordained for his presence to reside. His heart was filled with sorrow when he heard that the people there were suffering distress and shame. He wept and mourned, he fasted and he prayed.

 

In the providence of God we have the words of Nehemiah’s prayer in our hands and we can learn a great deal from his prayer. There are not many prayers recorded in the Bible, apart from those of David in the Psalms. Daniel’s prayer in recorded in detail (Daniel 9) and we have seen Ezra’s prayer (Ezra 9). The prayer of our Lord Jesus Christ is of course found in John 17. And there is also the prayer that Jesus taught his disciples to pray, the so called Lord’s Prayer.

 

How did Nehemiah pray? What did he say to the Lord? Some people do not pray because they have nothing to say to God, but others struggle to know what to say. Sadly some think that only certain Christians can pray, but prayer is essential to the live of every believer.

 

Prayer is often seen as asking God for things but this is only one aspect of prayer. Nehemiah had a need and he makes his request – in the second half of verse 11. What then is the rest of his prayer about? What is the pattern we find in Nehemiah’s prayer?

 

Acknowledge God

 

Lord God of heaven, O great and awesome God (1:5). The first thing Nehemiah does in his prayer is acknowledge God. He declares who he is praying to. He is speaking to someone and that someone is the Lord God of heaven. He is talking to the great and awesome God, not to a friend next door. He is praying to God, not having a chat with Daddy as some modern teaching describes prayer. Nehemiah prays with great humility, not forgetting that God is in heaven and he, God’s servant, is on earth.

 

How did Nehemiah know that God is great and awesome? He could have looked at the earth and into the heavens and seen the hand of God in creation. ‘The heavens declare the glory of God and stars proclaim the work of his hands’. Nehemiah does not explicitly refer to God as the creator as the Psalmist often does (Psalm 24, 95), but this is implied in the words ‘great and awesome’.

 

Nehemiah not only looked to the creation but he looked to the revelation of God in his word. In Deuteronomy 7:21 he read for the Lord your God, the great and awesome God is among Page 2 of 3 you. Daniel prayed the same words because he looked at the same written revelation of God (Dan 9:4). We learn about God from what he has revealed in his word. That is why reading the Bible goes hand in hand with prayer.

 

…. Nehemiah knew the Lord God of heaven could hear, and would hear and act.

 

…. The second thing Nehemiah acknowledges about the Lord God of heaven is the covenant he made with his chosen people – the Mosaic covenant. In making a covenant he gave them commandments, promising to bless them when they obeyed, and to curse them if they disobeyed. In particular he promised to scatter them from one end of the earth to the other, there to serve other gods, if they failed to observe his commandments (Deuteronomy 28:64). Nehemiah, like Daniel, knew this was the reason they were exiled in Babylon (1:8). He knew that God keeps his word. God is faithful to his covenant.

 

There is a pattern of prayer that goes by the mnemonic ACTS. The A is for adoration. We could have used this word instead of ‘acknowledge’. The way to begin prayer is with adoration, with acknowledging God for who he is and what he has done. We acknowledge him for his creation and our redemption in the Lord Jesus Christ.

 

Confession

 

The C in the ACTS pattern is ‘confession’ and this is exactly what we find in Nehemiah’s prayer – and Daniel’s. It is what Jesus taught us in the Lord’s Prayer – forgive us our sins. It is found in the prayer of the tax collector but not the Pharisee in Luke 18. Is confession of sin found in your prayers?

 

Nehemiah knew God was faithful to his covenant. He knew that it was because of the people’s unfaithfulness that they were in exile. He also knew from Scripture that God in his mercy had promised to hear his people and bring them back from captivity when they confessed their sin and returned to the Lord (Deuteronomy 30:2-3). On the basis of this promise Nehemiah prays, confessing the sin of the people and his own sin (1:6).

 

The leaders of Judah, especially Manasseh, were primarily responsible for the apostasy of the nation. But the priests and the people went along with them. Their sins are detailed in the books of Kings and Chronicles. That is in the past but still remembered. Nehemiah is not praying for the dead but for the people living in Jerusalem in distress and shame. They had been intermarrying with pagans, breaking the Sabbath, and failing to give their tithes. Nehemiah was following Ezra in confessing the sins of his people and seeking reform in the holy nation. We have not kept the commandments, the statutes, nor the ordinances which you commanded through your servant Moses (1:7).

 

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Nehemiah’s prayer is noteworthy for his confession. Our prayers should be the same. We cannot hide our sin from God. If we try to do so he will not hear our prayer (Psalm 66:18). Confess your sin and the Lord will forgive you. His ears are open to the prayer of those who confess and repent of their sin.

 

Supplication

 

The T in ACTS is for thanksgiving. In Nehemiah’s prayer there is no specific mention of thanksgiving, yet in a sense the whole of his prayer is one of thanking God for his mercy and covenant faithfulness. The fact that they were not consumed by God in his righteous anger and that a remnant had returned to Jerusalem was cause for thanksgiving. Following his confession Nehemiah makes his plea to God (1:11). On the basis of God’s character and his covenant Nehemiah makes his request. Note the number of times he uses the word ‘your’ referring to God. Like Moses he pleads these are your people whom you have redeemed by your great power (1:10).

 

In his wrath God was ready to destroy his people when they made the golden calf to worship. But Moses pleaded with the Lord saying these are your people whom you brought out of the land of Egypt with your great power (Exodus 32:11). Daniel made his plea saying for your city and your people are called by your name (Daniel 9:19). ….

 

[End of quote]

 

And a final brief comparison, taken from: http://fbcauburndale.com/WhyFastandPray

 

…. The first chapter of Nehemiah describes Nehemiah praying and fasting, because of his deep distress over the news that Jerusalem had been desolated. His many days of prayer were characterized by tears, fasting, confession on behalf of his people, and pleas to God for mercy. So intense was the outpouring of his concerns that it’s almost inconceivable he could “take a break” in the middle of such prayer to eat and drink. The devastation that befell Jerusalem also prompted Daniel to adopt a similar posture: “So I turned to the Lord God and pleaded with him in prayer and petition, in fasting, and in sackcloth and ashes” (Daniel 9:3). Like Nehemiah, Daniel fasted and prayed that God would have mercy upon the people, saying, “We have been wicked and have rebelled; we have turned away from your commands and laws” (v. 5). ….

 

Prophet Daniel the New Moses

Published August 14, 2018 by amaic

by

Damien F. Mackey

 

“… Jewish Talmudic writers viewed Ezra … as a second Moses …”.

Lisbeth S. Fried

 

Whilst this is a commonly held view, Ezra the scribe as “a second Moses” or “a new Moses”, what has it to do with the prophet Daniel?

Daniel who, according to Sir Robert Anderson, was omitted by Sirach (Ecclesiasticus) from his list of famous men because Daniel stayed well away from Israel and its “struggles”: https://books.google.com.au/books?id=BMhjDwAAQBAJ&pg=PT15&lpg=PT15&dq=sir+ro

The Coming Prince

This panegyric [Sirach], it is true, omits the name of Daniel. But in what connection would his name be included? Daniel was exiled to Babylon in early youth, and never spent a single day of his long life among his people, never was openly associated with them in their struggles or their sorrows. ….

 

Well, it actually has everything to do with Daniel if I am right in my recent expansion of the great Jewish sage to embrace, in his very person, this same Ezra the New Moses. See my:

Even more to Daniel than may meet the eye

https://www.academia.edu/37229635/Even_more_to_Daniel_than_may_meet_the_eye

Ezra who likewise, incidentally, was not listed by Sirach – at least qua Ezra.

But Nehemiah was listed by Sirach. And Nehemiah was, according to my Daniel article above, both Ezra and Daniel. So, in other words, Sirach, in praising Nehemiah, was also praising Ezra, was praising Daniel.

And, when one reads the amazing life of Daniel as a combination (Daniel=Ezra=Nehemiah), then it could hardly be said, as Sir Robert Anderson thought, that “Daniel … never spent a single day of his long life among his people, never was openly associated with them in their struggles or their sorrows”. Daniel in fact, as Ezra-Nehemiah, carried the people of Israel.

He was the very founder of the Jewish nation, deservedly known as the “Father of Judaïsm”.

 

Interesting that Sir Robert Anderson should refer to the “long life” of Daniel.

For, according to tradition, Ezra may have lived for 120 years – the same life length as Moses (Deuteronomy 34:7). (Though it may be that tradition has accorded Ezra that exact time length due to comparisons of him with Moses). Ezra was certainly old. And the long time stretch has enabled me – in combination with a very radically reduced neo-Assyrian-Babylonian and Medo-Persian chronology, one  more compatible with the archaeological evidence – to identify Ezra, Greek Esdras, with the Maccabean elder Razis, also known as a “Father of the Jews” (2 Maccabees 14:37), thereby illuminating us about the great man’s extraordinary death.

 

Again, as Moses was “educated in all the wisdom of the Egyptians” (Acts 7:22), and went into exile, before leading the Exodus out of Egypt, so was the exiled Daniel given “knowledge and understanding of all kinds of literature and learning … of visions and dreams of all kinds” (Daniel 1:17), before he (as Ezra-Nehemiah) led the new Exodus out of Babylon.